تأثیر کشت مخلوط جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) و شبدر ایرانی (Trifolium resupinatum L.) بر ویژگی‌های کمی علوفه

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

جهت بهینه سازی نسبت و آرایش کاشت در مخلوط جو و شبدر آزمایشی بصورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار درسال زراعی 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. آرایش کاشت در پنج سطح (مخلوط ردیفی 1:1(M1)، مخلوط ردیفی 2:2 (M2)، مخلوط نواری 3:3 (M3)، مخلوط نواری 4:4 (M4) و مخلوط درهم (M5)) بعنوان کرت اصلی و نسبت کاشت نیز در پنج سطح (مخلوط افزایشی 50% شبدر + 100% جو (R5)، مخلوط افزایشی 25% شبدر + 100% جو (R4)، مخلوط جایگزینی 50% جو + 50% شبدر(R3) همرا با جو خالص (R2) و شبدر خالص (R1)) در کرت های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج آزمایش حاکی از تاثیر معنی دار (P<0.01) آرایش و نسبت کاشت بر وزن خشک علوفه وهمچنین عملکرد پروتئین بود. بیشترین وزن خشک علوفه از کشت جو خالص (14731 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و مخلوط درهم (12857.9 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بدست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد پروتئین نیز از نسبت کاشت جو خالص (1962.2 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و آرایش کاشت مخلوط درهم (1584.38 کیلوگرم در هکتار) حاصل شد. اثر آرایش کاشت بر نسبت برابری زمین معنی دار نبود ولی نسبت کاشت بر نسبت برابری زمین تاثیرمعنی دار داشت (P<0.01). بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین متعلق به نسبت کاشت R5 (1.28) و آرایش کاشت M4 (1.23) بود. تاثیر آرایش و نسبت کاشت بر ضریب ازدحام نسبی (K) معنی دار نبود ولی بیشترین مقدار ضریب ازدحام نسبی متعلق به نسبت کاشت R4 (35.33) وکمترین مقدار متعلق به R5 (23.24-) بود. اثر آرایش و نسبت کاشت بر شاخص تهاجم معنی دار بود، منفی شدن شاخص تهاجم شبدربیانگر مغلوب بودن شبدر در کشت مخلوط بوده و همانگونه که آشکار شد جو دارای قابلیت رقابتی بیشتر برای تسخیر منابع در کشت مخلوط بود. شاخص های اقتصادی کاهش عملکرد واقعی (AYL) وسودمندی اقتصادی (IA) بیانگر مزیت کشت مخلوط جو و شبدرنسبت به حالت تک کشتی بوده بطوریکه بیشترین سودمندی اقتصادی در نسبت کاشت مخلوط R4 (7262833 ریال) و آرایش کاشت مخلوط M4 (4974840 ریال) حاصل گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Persian Clover (Trifolium respinatum L.) Intercropping on Forage Quantity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Nazarian
  • Ali Reza Koocheki
  • Mahdi nassiri mahallati
  • Parwiz Rezwani moqaddam
Ferdowsi mashhad
چکیده [English]

For optimize of cropping rate and pattern in a mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and persian clover (Trifolium respinatum L.) an experiment was arranged in split plot with randomized complete block design and three replications. This experiment was conducted on research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2013-14. The pattern of sowing considered in five levels (row intercropping 1:1 (M1), row intercropping 2:2 (M2), strip intercropping 3:3 (M3), strip intercropping 4:4 (M4) and mixed cropping (M5)) in main plots and the cropping rate were in five levels (barley %100: %50 clover (R5), barley %100: %25 clover (R4), barley %50: %50 clover (R3),with pure barley (R2) and pure clover (R1)) in subplots. ). Results showed that the effect of cropping rate and pattern on forage dry matter (FDM) and protein yield (PY) were significant (P<0.01). The highest levels of forage dry matter were obtained in pure barley R2 (14731 kg/ha) and mixed cropping M5 (12857.9 kg/ha), respectively. The highest protein yield were also obtained in R2 (1962.2 Kg/ha) and M5 (1584.38 Kg/ha). The effect of sowing pattern on land equivalent ratio (LER) was not significant but the effect of cropping rate was significant (P <0.01). The highest levels of LER were obtained in R5 (1.28) and M4 (1.23), respectively. The effect of sowing rate and pattern on relative crowding coefficient (RCC or K) was not significant but the highest level of K was obtained in R4 (35.33) and the lowest was in R5 (-23.24). The effect of sowing rate and pattern on aggressivity (A) was significant, and the clover negative value of aggressivity (A) showed that the clover was recessive in intercrop. Economic indices such as actual yield loss (AYL) and intercropping advantage index (IA) showed that barley-clover intercropping was better than sole culture, and the highest IA was obtained in R4 (7,262,833 Rials) and M4 (4974840 Rials).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intercropping
  • cropping pattern
  • Cropping rate
  • Land equivalent ratio (LER)
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