تأثیر تلقیح با قارچ Piriformospora indica بر عملکرد دانه، جذب و کارآیی مصرف نور سویا (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) تحت شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر تلقیح با قارچ Piriformospora indica بر جذب و کارآیی مصرف نور سویا (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) تحت شرایط تنش کم‌آبی، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا در دو سال 1393 و 1394 اجرا شد. عامل اصلی آبیاری در سه سطح (آبیاری پس از 60، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر آب از تشت تبخیر) و عامل فرعی کاربرد قارچ P. indica در دو سطح (تلقیح و عدم تلقیح با قارچ) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل شاخص سطح برگ، ماده خشک، جذب تشعشع، کارآیی مصرف نور و عملکرد دانه بود. در هر دو سال زراعی با اعمال تنش کم‌آبی، سطح برگ و تجمع ماده خشک، کاهش یافت. کاربرد قارچ در سطوح مختلف آبیاری، سبب افزایش سطح برگ و تجمع ماده خشک شد. بیشترین مقدار کارآیی مصرف نور (75/1 و 85/1 گرم بر مگاژول به‌ترتیب در سال اول و دوم) در گیاهان تلقیح‌شده با قارچ تحت شرایط عدم تنش کم‌آبی و کمترین مقدار آن (10/1 و 15/1 گرم بر مگاژول به‌ترتیب در سال اول و دوم) در گیاهان تلقیح نشده تحت شرایط تنش شدید کم‌آبی به‌دست آمد. تنش شدید کم‌آبی، عملکرد دانه سویا را به‌میزان 20/57 درصد کاهش داد. قارچ P. indica، در شرایط عدم تنش، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید کم‌آبی، عملکرد دانه سویا را به‌ترتیب 67/13، 85/22 و 14/22 درصد در مقایسه با عدم تلقیح، افزایش داد. نتایج نشان‌دهنده تأثیر مثبت قارچ P. indica در سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر شاخص سطح برگ، ماده خشک، جذب و کارآیی مصرف نور سویا بود، به‌طوری­که کاربرد قارچ منجر به کاهش اثرات تنش و بهبود عملکرد سویا تحت شرایط تنش کم‌آبی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Piriformospora indica Inoculation on the Seed Yield, Light Absorption and Radiation Use Efficiency of Soybean (Glycine max) Under Water Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Goudarz ahmadvand
  • Somayeh hajinia
University of Bu Ali Sina hamaden
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
Water stress is one of the most important limiting factors in crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. More than 45% of agricultural land on earth is subjected to continuous or frequent water deficiency, and it can cause ~50% loss of grain yield, on average. Soybean growth is affected by drought stress. Drought stress has been estimated to reduce seed yield of soybean by 24 to 50 percent. Improvement the light absorption in the crop plant increase the crop yield. All plants, at least during their vegetative growing period, produce and store dry matters using sunlight. One of the most important strategies to increase tolerance to dehydration and improve the growth performance in crops is to establish associations with the beneficial of fungal symbiosis. Piriformospora indica is one of the cultivable root-colonizing endophytic fungi that has a symbiotic relationship with the roots of most crops and improves the growth and yield of plants by increasing the absorption of nutrients such as phosphorus and some micro- elements and can enhance the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses (Oelmuller et al., 2009). The aim of the present investigation was to study the impact of P. indica on the light absorption, radiation use efficiency and grain yield of soybean under different levels of irrigation.
 
Materials and Methods
Two field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Faculty, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran (35º1ʹN, 48 º31ʹE; 1690 m a.m.s.l.) in 2014 and 2015. This region has a cold and semi-dry climate. The experiments were carried out as split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The Main factors consisted of three irrigation treatments (irrigation after 60 (well-watered), 90 (mild stress) and 120 (severe stress) mm cumulative evaporation from pan class A) and sub plots included of two levels of fungus P. indica (inoculated and non-inoculated). All main plots were irrigated immediately after sowing. Water-stress treatments as described above were applied after seedling establishment. Irrigation was performed via polyethylene pipes, and a water meter was used to measure the volume of irrigation water in each main plot. In order to maintain the specified soil-moisture regimes, the amount of used water was calculated by using crop water requirement as described by Doorenbos and Pruitt (1992).
 
Results and Discussion
In both years, drought stress decreased leaf area and dry matter of soybean. Inoculation with fungus, increased leaf area and dry matter of soybean plants in different irrigation levels. Daneshian et al. (2011) studied the effect of drought stress on dry matter and soybean growth indices. Due to the decrease in leaf area, drought stress reduced the amount of dry matter accumulation in the soybean plants. The highest radiation use efficiency (1.75 and 1.85 g MJ-1 in 1st and 2nd year, respectively) was obtained from inoculated soybean plant under well-watered, and the lowest one (1.10 and 1.15 g MJ-1 in 1st and 2nd year, respectively) was observed in control plant (non-inoculated) under severe drought stress. Drought stress reduces the amount of radiation use efficiency by reducing photosynthetic rates and decreasing leaf area index. Severe drought stress significantly decreased grain yield of soybean by about 57.20 percent. Application of P. indica caused an increase in grain yield of soybean by about 13.67, 22.85 and 22.14 percent under well-watered, mild and severe drought stress, respectively, compared to control (non-inoculate). Inoculation with P. indica fungus increases the light absorption and radiation use efficiency by increasing the amount of vegetative growth, leaf area index and photosynthetic material production, which improves the yield of soybean.
 
Conclusion
The results showed P. indica fungus had a positive effect on absorption and radiation use efficiency of soybean in different irrigation levels, so that the application of fungus mitigated the effects of drought stress and improved the yield of soybean under drought stress.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation
  • Absorption radiation
  • Soybean
  • Endophytic fungus
  • Radiation Use Efficiency
Aboutalebian, M.A., and Khalili, M. 2014. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on soybean yield and yield components under water stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 45: 169-181. (In Persian with English Summary)
Aboutalebian, M.A., Ahmadvand, G., and Khalili, M. 2016. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae and Bradyrhizobium on some growth indices of soybean under water stress. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 5:367-382. (In Persian with English Summary)
Adeboye, O.B., Schultz, B., Adekalu, K.O., and Prasad, K. 2016. Impact of water stress on radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Nigeria. Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology 15: 2-21.
Aliasgharzad, N., Neyshabouri, M.R., and Salimi, G. 2006. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on drought stress of soybean. Biologia Bratislava 61: 324-328.
Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., and Smith, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, Rome, 300, D05109.
Anjum, S.A., Xie, X., Wang, L., Saleem, M.F., Man, C., and Lei, W. 2011. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal Agriculture Research 6: 2026-2032.
Ashraf, M., and Foolad, M.R. 2007. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59: 206-216.
Arvin, P., and Vafabakhsh, J. 2016. Study of drought and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on radiation use efficiency and dry matter partitioning into pod in different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Iranian Journal of Journal of Agroecology 8: 134-152. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bat-Oyun, T.M., Shinoda, M., and Tsubo, M. 2011. Effects of water and temperature stresses on radiation use efficiency in a semi-arid grassland. Journal Plant Interaction 7: 214-224.
Daneshian, J., Jonoubi, P., and Barari Tari, D. 2011. Investigation of water deficit stress on agronomical traits of soybean in temperate climate. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 75: 778-785.
Demirtas, C., Yazgan, S., Candogan, B.N., Sincik, M., Buyukcangaz, H., and Goksoy, A.T. 2010. Quality and yield response of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to drought stress in sub-humid environment. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 6873-6881.
Doorenbos, J., and Kassam, A. 1979. Yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33: 257.
Ezzat Ahmadi, M., Noor Mohammadi, G., Moghaddasi, M., and Kafi, M. 2012. Evaluation of radiation and water use efficiency in bread wheat genotypes in condition of different photosynthetic and moisture stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 10(1): 225-239. (In Persian with English Summary)
Garofalo, P., and Rinaldi, M. 2015. Leaf as exchange and radiation use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in response to different deficit irrigation strategies: From solar radiation to plant growth analysis. European Journal of Agronomy 64: 88-97.
Ghabooli, M., Shahriari, F., Sepehri, M., Marashi, H., and Hosseini Salekdeh, G.H. 2011. An Evaluation of the impact of the endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on some traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in drought stress. Journal of Agroecology 3(3): 328-336. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghosh, D.C. 2004. Growth and productivity of sesame (Sesamum indicum) as influenced by biofertilizer and growth-regulator. Indian Journal of Agronomy 45(2): 389-394.
Goudriaan, J., and Van Laar, H.H. 1994. Modelling Potential Crop Growth Processes. Kluwer Academic Press.
Han, H., Li, Z., Ning, T., Zhang, X., Shan, Y., and Bai, M. 2008. Radiation use efficiency and yield of winter wheat under deficit irrigation in North China. Plant Soil and Environment 54: 313-319.
Hill, T.W., and Kafer, E. 2001. Improved protocols for Aspergillus minimal medium: trace element and minimal medium salt stock solutions. Fungal Genetics and Newsl 48: 20-21.
Hosseinpanahi, F., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Ghorbani, R. 2010. Evaluation of radiation absorption and use efficiency in potato/corn intercropping. Iranian Journal of Agroecology 2: 45-54. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hu, Y., Zhang, Y.L., Yix, P., Zhan, D.X., Luo, H.H., Chow, W.S., and Zhang, W.F. 2014. The relative contribution of non-foliar organs of cotton to yield and related physiological characteristics under water deficit. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13: 975-989.
Khajehpour, M. 2007. Principle of Agronomy. Industrial University of Esfahan Publication, Isfahan, Iran. 387pp. (In Persian).
Michal Johnson, J., Lee, Y.C., Camehl, I., Sun, C., Yeh, K.W., and Oelmuller, R. 2013. Piriformospora indica promotes growth of Chinese cabbage by manipulating auxin homeostasis- role of auxin in symbiosis. In: A. Varma (Eds.). Piriformospora indica, soil biology. Springer Verlag, Berlin. p. 139-147.
Muchow, R.C. 1985. An analysis of the efects of water deicits on grain legumes grown in a semi‑arid tropical environ‑ment in terms of radiation interception and its eiciency of use. Field Crops Research 11: 309-323.
Ngugi, K., Collins, J.O., and Muchira, S. 2013. Combining, earliness, short anthesis to silking interval and yield based selection indices under intermittent water stress to select for drought tolerant maize. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7: 2014-2020.
Oelmuller, R., Sherameti, I., Tripathi, S., and Varma, A. 2009. Piriformospora indica, a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications. Symbiosis 49: 1-17.
Osborne, S.L., Scheppers, J.S. Francis, D.D., and Schlemmer, M.R. 2002. Use of spectral radiance to in-season biomass and grain yield in nitrogen and water-stressed corn. Crop Science 42: 165-171.
Pazoki, A.R., and Kariminejad, M. 2010. Effect of zeolit amounts and drought stress on light extinction coefficientof rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Crop Production Research 2(2): 175-189. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sadeghipour, O., and Abbasi, S. 2012. Soybean response to drought and seed inoculation. World Applied Science Journal 17: 55-60.
Sarmadnia, G.H., and Koocheki, A. 1989. Crop Plant Physiology. University of Mashhad Publicatio, Mashhad, Iran. 400pp. (In Persian).
Shariatmadari, M.H., Zemani, G.R., and Sayari, M.H. 2011. Effect of salinity and foliar spraying with Fe on leaf area index, absorption radiation and relation with grain yield of sunflower. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 9: 285-293. (In Persian with English Summary)
Singer, J.W., Meek, D.W., Sauer, T.J., Prueger, J.H., and Hatield, J.L. 2011. Variability of light interception and radiation use eiciency in maize and soybean. Field Crops Research 121: 147-152.
Tabarzad, A., Ghaemi, A.A., and Zand Parsa, S. 2016. Extinction coefficients and radiation use efficiency of barley under different, irrigation regimes and sowing dates. Agricultural Water Management 178: 126-136.
Tesfaye, K., Walkerb, S., and Tsubob, M. 2006. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of three grain legumes under water deficit conditions in a semi-arid environment. European Journal of Agronomy 25: 60-70.
Tripathi, S., Das, A., Chandra, A., and Varma, A. 2015. Development of carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica and its evaluation on Phaseolus vulgaris L. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 31(2): 337-344. DOI 10.1007/s11274-014-1785-y.
Tsubo, M., Walker, S., and Ogindo, H.O. 2005. A simulation model of cereal legume intercropping systems for semi-arid regions I. Model development. Field Crops Research 93: 10-22.
Xu, L., Wang, A., Wei, Q., and Zhang, W. 2017. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance on Zea mays L. through enhancement of antioxidant activity and expression of drought-related genes. The Crop Journal 5: 251-258.
Yaghoubian, Y., Mohammadi Goltapeh, E., Pirdashti, H., Esfandiari, E., Feiziasl , V., Kari Dolatabadi, H., and Varma, A. 2014. Effect of Glomus mosseae and Piriformospora indica on growth and antioxidant defense responses of wheat plants under drought stress. Agriculture Research 3: 239-245.
Yousef Nia, M., Banayan Aval, M., and Khorramdel, S. 2015. Evaluation of radiation use and interception of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) intercropping canopy. Journal of Agroecology 7(3): 412-424. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zare Abyaneh, H., Gasemi, A., Marofi, S., and Bayat Varkeshi, M. 2010. Determination of water requirement, single and dual crop coefficients of garlic in cold semi-arid climate. Water and Soil Science 20: 111-122.