عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, mining led to severe degradation of natural and agricultural lands in a relatively large scale. Establishment of vegetation cover around the mining areas is a practical and enviromental sound strategy. However due to poor soil condition and presere of heavy metals this process is risky and establishment of plant cover is not an easy task. Achillea millefolium L. is one of the important species that is used as rangeland and medicinal plant and also as ornamental and cover plant. However, technical issues such as soil amendments type of plant and method of planting need to be considered for a successful establishment. Some soil amendments materials are zeolite, superabsorbent or hydrogel and also mycorrhiza. However initial establishment of proper plant species under field condition is required for feasibility of such studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate suitability of Achillea millefolium L. for reclamation of contaminated soils around abandoned mines of Mashhad′ Shargh Cement Factory with inclusion of soil amendents.
Materials and Methods
The effect of mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices), superabsorbent (A200) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on the establishment and production of Achillea millefolium L. species in soils of abondened mines (Mashhad′ Shargh Cement Factory) was studied in 2015-2017. The experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications consisting of four treatment (a plant species, mycorrhiza, zeolite and superabsorbent) criteria such as establishment percent, plant height, mycorrhizal colonization on roots, aerial and root dry weight and total dry matter was measured. Method of Giovannetti was used for colonization measurement of roots. The experimental data were categorized using the Excel database software and the charts were drawn. Analysis of variance was carried out by SPSS18 and Minitab16.
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance showed that zeolite, mycorrhiza and superabsorbent had significant effects on total dry weight, plant height, aerial and root dry weight of Achillea millefolium L. and also on establishment percent of the plant. Use of Mycorrhiza, zeolite and absorbent increased plant establishment by 50, 33 and 11 percent respectively. Zeolite and mycorrhiza increased plant height, aerial and root dry weight and also total dry weight compared with superabsorbent and control. When compared with the control zeolites, mycorrhiza and superabsorbent increased plant height by 14.3, 12.3 and 6.3 cm, dry aerial weight by 0.73, 0.57 and 0.5 g, dry root weight by 0.26, 0.15 and 0.14 gand total dry weight by 1, 0.73 and 0.64 g, respectively. Using suitable mycorrhizal fungi as an inoculum material in contaminated areas with heavy metals can reduce the effects of these toxic metals. Using suitable mycorrhizae fungi as an inoculum material in contaminated areas with heavy metals can reduce the effects of these toxic metals. In a study that was carried out in Germany, natural zeolite was used to remove heavy metals from mine water. Zeolite in reducing iron, lead was more effective than cadmium and zinc.
According to the obtained results, the use of effective and affordable G. intraradices mycorrhiza and zeolite fertilizers as bio-fertilizers to increase yield and initial establishment Achillea millefolium L. plant and vegetation recovery of lands contaminated with heavy metals in mining area of Mashhad Shargh cement factory is recommended.