بررسی تاثیر عوامل اقلیمی- مدیریتی بر عملکرد و خصوصیات رشدی گیاه دارویی- صنعتی حنا (Lowsonia inermis L.) در استان کرمان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 دانشگاه شهید باهنر

چکیده

امروزه در تمام دنیا به گیاهان دارویی و نقش آنها در تولید داروهای فاقد عوارض داروهای شیمیایی توجه ویژه ای می شود. کشور ما نیز با بهره گیری از پتانسیل اقلیمی متنوع نقش بسزایی در تولید این گیاهان در دنیا دارد. تدوین و اجرای برنامه های موثر در راستای احیاء، حفاظت و بهره برداری کارآمد از گونه های دارویی با شناخت ویژگی ها و نیازهای اکولوژیکی آنها امکان پذیر است. حنا با نام علمیLowsonia inermis L. گیاهی چند ساله است که از لحاظ دارا بودن خواص دارویی و کاربرد های صنعتی از ارزش بالایی برخوردار است. در این بررسی مشخصات اقلیمی مناطق زیر کشت، خصوصیات فیزیکی-شیمیایی خاک، اطلاعات عملکرد، مراحل مختلف فنولوژیکی و همچنین اطلاعات مدیریتی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که این گیاه در استان کرمان در مناطق شهداد، رودبار، بم و کهنوج پراکنش دارد. پهنه بندی اقلیمی مناطق رویشگاهی بر اساس ضریب خشکی دومارتن از نوع اقلیم خشک می باشد. متوسط میزان بارندگی سالانه این رویشگاه ها 7/72 میلی متر، رطوبت نسبی 6/33 درصد، ارتفاع از سطح دریا 632 متر و دمای متوسط آن 5/26 درجه سانتی گراد است. خاک رویشگاه ها عمدتا دارای بافت شنی-لومی با اسیدیته 19/8، هدایت الکتریکی 84/3 دسی زیمنس بر متر و مقدار ماده آلی 06/0 تا 12/0 درصد می باشد. حنا در مجموع گونه ای حساس به سرما است که در شرایط اقلیمی خشک با متوسط بارندگی سالیانه کمتر از 100 میلی متر قادر به رشد است. آبیاری گیاه در کلیه مناطق بصورت کرتی و با مقدار بیش از 8000 متر مکعب در هکتار می باشد. میزان مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن نیز بیش از 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار مشاهده شد. نتایج رگرسیون نشان داد که رطوبت نسبی منطقه، درصد نیتروژن خاک و میزان مصرف آب مهمترین عوامل تاثیر گذار بر رشد و نمو گیاه حنا می باشند. در مجموع لازم است با توجه به اهمیت گیاهان دارویی با بررسی جنبه های مختلف اکوفیزیولوژیک کشت حنا، راهکاری برای ایجاد مدیریت بهینه و توسعه سطح زیر کاشت در مناطق بومی در کشور فراهم شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing effect of climatic-management factors on yield and growth characteristics of henna (Lowsonia inermis L.) as a medicinal-industrial plant in Kerman province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin pasandi poor 1
  • hassan farahbakhsh 2
  • Roohallah Moradi 1
1 Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
2 Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Nowadays across the world is particular attention for medicinal plants and their role in the production of drugs with no side effects. Our country with climatic extremes also have important role in the production of these plants in the world. Formulate and implement effective programs in line with the resuscitation conservation and efficient utilization of medicinal plants by identifying their characteristics and ecological needs is possible. Henna with the scientific name of Lawsonia inermis L. is a perennial plant having high value in terms of medicinal properties and industrial application. The dye which is derived from green leaves of henna is used for decorating the body with intricate designs and the principle coloring matter is lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoqunone (Prosen et al., 2005). Literature show henna possess antibacterial (Vinoth et al., 2013) and anti- immunomodulatory activities (Mikheil et al., 2004) along with other properties. The natural constituents of henna are essential oils, 1,4-naphthoquinone, tannins, gallic acid, flavonoids, lipids, sugars, triacontyltridecanoate, mannitol, xanthones, coumarins (5-alkyloxy 7-hydroxycoumarin), 2-3% resins, 5-10% tannic ingredients and up to 2% lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). A major portion of lawsone is glycosidic bound, which is cleaved by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidichennosids and auto oxidation of aglucons. Review of findings shows that no studies have been done on the eco-physiological properties of henna in Iran. Kerman province with the first position in Hana production has a special importance in this regard.

Materials and methods
The study was carried out in Kerman province in 2015. In this survey climatic characteristics of cultivated area, physico-chemical analysis of soil, performance data, phenological stages and also information on irrigation were investigated. Finally, the relationship between climatic-management characteristics and performance was studied through multiple regressions.

Results and discussion
Introduction
Nowadays there is a global attention to medicinal plants and their role in the production of drugs with no side effects. Our country with climate variety also has important role in production of these plants in the world. Formulate and implement effective programs in line with the resuscitation conservation and efficient utilization of medicinal plants by identifying their characteristics and ecological needs is possible. Henna with the scientific name of Lawsonia inermis L. is a perennial plant having high value in terms of medicinal properties and industrial application. The dye which is derived from green leaves of henna is used for decorating the body with intricate designs and the principle coloring matter is lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoqunone. Literature show henna possess antibacterial and anti- immunomodulatory activities along with other properties. The natural constituents of henna are essential oils, 1,4-naphthoquinone, tannins, gallic acid, flavonoids, lipids, sugars, triacontyltridecanoate, mannitol, xanthones, coumarins (5-alkyloxy 7-hydroxycoumarin), 2-3% resins, 5-10% tannic ingredients and up to 2% lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). A major portion of lawsone is glycosidic bound, which is cleaved by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidichennosids and auto oxidation of aglucons. Reports of various studies show that no experiment have been done on the eco-physiological properties of henna in Iran. Kerman province with the first position in Hana production has a special importance in this regard.
Materials and methods
This study was carried out in Kerman province in 2015.In this survey climatic characteristics of cultivated area, physico-chemical analysis of soil, performance data, phenological stages and also information on irrigation were investigated. Finally, the relationship between climatic-management characteristics and performance was studied through multiple regressions.
Results and discussion
The results showed that the henna in Kerman province is distributed in Shahdad, Roodbar, Bam and Kahnooj. The area under cultivation in these regions ranged from a minimum of 3 hectares with a yield average of 1.4 ton/ha in Shahdad and a maximum of 7500 hectares with a yield average of 6.5 ton/ha in the Roodbar. The results of this study showed that over 93% of henna cultivation area in Kerman province belongs to Roodbar. The highest and lowest of water use efficiency were belonged to Roodbar (0.46) and Shahdad (0.17) respectively. The total growth period, on average, varied between 190 to 220 days in the studied areas. Climatic zoning of habitat areas were dry climate according to Domarten dryness index. The mean annual precipitation of habitats were 7.72 mm, 33.6% relative humidity, 632 m altitude and the mean temperature was 26.5 ° C. Soil of habitats largely had sandy-loam texture with an pH of 8.19, 3.84 dS/m electrical conductivity and 0.06-0.12% organic matter. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that nitrogen, rainfall and relative humidity are the most important soil and climate characteristics that affect henna performance , respectively. Availability of nitrogen has a great importance because of their role in the production of proteins, nucleic acids and chlorophyll synthesis. Rainfall is one of the most important climatic factors that can be more effective in yield production through the influence of moisture and soil temperature.
Conclusion
Henna is a cold-sensitive species while able to growth in dry climates with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm. According to recent studies the plant cultivation area in previous years has been more than now. Some problems such as water shortages, agricultural economic problems and etc. have been effective in reducing the cultivation area. In general, due to the importance of medicinal plants, it is necessary to study the various ecophysiological aspects of henna, providing a solution for optimized management and consequently extending area under cultivation in the local areas of the country.


Conclusion
Henna is a sensitive species to cold while is able to growth in dry climate condition with less than 100 mm annual precipitation. According to recent studies the plant cultivation area in previous years has been more than now. Some problems such as water shortages, agricultural economic problems and etc. has been effective in reducing the cultivation area. In general, due to the importance of medicinal plants it is necessary to study the various ecophysiological aspects of henna, providing a solution for optimized management and consequently extending the area under cultivation in local areas of the country.

Key Words: Climate, distribution, henna, phenology, Kerman.

References
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate
  • distribution
  • henna
  • Kerman
  • Phenology
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