مقایسه کمی و کیفی ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) تحت تأثیر تنش رطوبتی انتهایی و محلول‌پاشی هیومیک اسید

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اردبیل

چکیده

اثر تنش رطوبتی و کاربرد هیومیک اسید به‌‌صورت محلول بر عملکرد کمی و همچنین کیفیت دانه ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم نان(Triticum aestivum L.)، طی آزمایشی در منطقه اردبیل در سال 87-1386 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. هیومیک اسید استخراج شده از پیت با ترکیب هیومات پتاسیم به‌کار رفت. صفات عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و میزان پروتئین دانه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که تنش رطوبتی تأثیر معنی‌داری برصفات عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و میزان پروتئین دانه داشت. مصرف هیومات پتاسیم تنها بر محتوای پروتئین دانه تأثیر معنی‌داری نشان داد، اما برهمکنش سطوح تنش رطوبتی × محلول پاشی هیومات پتاسیم تأثیر معنی‌داری برصفات عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه داشت. اختلاف معنی‌داری بین ژنوتیپ‌ها از نظر عملکرد دانه مشاهده شد و برهمکنش هیومات پتاسیم × ژنوتیپ روی محتوای پروتئین دانه در سطح احتمال پنج درصد معنی‌دار شد. مصرف هیومات پتاسیم در مقایسه با عدم مصرف آن در شرایط تنش رطوبتی باعث افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد بیولوژیک شد (به‌ترتیب 10/6 و 74/7 تن در هکتار). این میزان برای عملکرد دانه برابر 82/2 و 56/3 تن در هکتار بود، در حالی‌که در شرایط عدم تنش رطوبتی مصرف هیومات پتاسیم اختلاف معنی‌داری با عدم مصرف آن روی این صفات نشان نداد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در بین ژنوتیپ‌ها متعلق به ژنوتیپ 4057 (برابر 92/3 تن) بود. تحت شرایط تنش رطوبتی، محتوای پروتئین دانه افزایش نشان داد و بالاترین محتوای پروتئین دانه (5/14 درصد) از ترکیب تیماری رقم ساراتووسکایا – 29 با مصرف هیومات پتاسیم و کمترین مقدار آن (4/13 درصد) از ترکیب تیماری ژنوتیپ 4057 در شرایط عدم مصرف هیومات پتاسیم به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantitative and Qualitative Comparison of Wheat Genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) under Terminal Water Stress Conditions and Foliar Application of Humic Acid

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Shahryari
Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In order to achieve healthy food production, application of ecological inputs such as organic and biological fertilizers is inevitable. Organic fertilizers are fertilizer compounds that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. They can improve the soil ability to hold water and nutrients.
Humic substances (HS) are natural organic compounds comprising from 50% to 90% of the organic matter of peat, lignites, sapropels, as well as non-living organic of soil and water ecosystems. According to the classical definition, HS are "a general category of naturally occurring heterogeneous organic substances that can generally be characterized as being yellow to black in color, of high molecular weight and refractory". They are a mixture of complex organic compounds that are usually separated into three fractions based on aqueous solubility: humic acids (HA), the fraction of HS that is not soluble in water under acidic conditions (pH < 2) but is soluble at higher pH values; fulvic acids (FA), the fraction of HS that is soluble in water under all pH conditions; humins, the fraction of HS that is not soluble in water at any pH value. HS cannot be described by unique, chemically defined molecular structures.
Production of drought tolerant wheat varieties which can produce acceptable yield with minimum irrigation requirement has special significance in breeding programs. Use of humic acids as soil amendments and for plants nutrition purposes enhances plants tolerance to the abiotic stresses specially drought stress. Humic acid is an eco-friendly fertilizer that improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. This nutritional source has hormonal compounds and exerts a positive effect on elements absorption, quality and yield of plants.
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of humic acid on quantity and quality of bread wheat against end drought stress conditions.

Materials and methods
In this study, in order to determine the effect of potassium humate on wheat tolerance to late season drought and also quantity and quality of its grain yield, an experiment was carried out on six selected wheat genotypes including Gascogne, Sabalan, 4057, Ruzi-84, Gobustan and Saratovskaya-29. The experiment was carried out as split plot factorial based on completely randomized block design with three replications in research farm of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil branch, Iran during 2008-2009 growing season. Main plot include stress levels ( irrigation cut at anthesis stage and non-stress) and potassium humate (humate application), and sub plot included as genotypes. Treatment composition of non-stress, non humate and Gascogne wheat was considered as a control treatment. Treatments were stress levels (stress, non-stress); humate levels (humate, non-humate) and genotypes.
Applied liquid humic fertilizer (potassium humate) was derived from peat. Humic treatments were done at several times (spraying on seeds after planting, foliage spraying at tillering, stem elongation and grain filling stages). Grain yield, biological yield and protein content of grains were recorded. After grain milling by Laboratory Mill-3100, protein content of flour measured by Inframatic-8600. Data analysis was done by using SAS software and means were compared by least significant difference test (LSD).

Results and discussion
Potassium humate reduced stress intensity by 23% and also increased biological and economic yield in drought conditions. In late season drought conditions potassium humate increased the yield from 2.8 to 3.6 tons per hectare (around 26%). Humate increased seed yield of the varieties Gascogne (1.8 tons per hectare), Gobustan, Saratovskaya-29 and Sabalan (0.54 to 0.67 tons per hectare) and Ruzi-84 (0.27 tons per hectare). Seed protein content in Saratovskaya-29 was highest in both humate application conditions and without it, but the yield was low. The variety Sabalan had the highest grain yield and average protein content. The 4057 genotype and Sabalan had the highest grain yield in both stress and no-stress conditions.

Conclusion
Generally, the findings of this investigation showed that potassium humate as a natural preparation can improve quality and quantity of produced wheat grains against end seasonal drought condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • common wheat
  • Irrigation
  • potassium humate
  • Protein
Alimohamady, M., Rezaee, A., and Mirmohamady Meybodi, A. 2009. Evaluation of some physiological traits and grain yield of ten Iranian bread wheat cultivars under two ırrigation conditions. Journal of Water and Soil Sciences 13(48): 107-120. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bakry, B.A., Elewa,T.A., El-kramany, M.F., and Wali, A.M. 2013. Effect of humic and ascorbic acids foliar application on yield and yield components of two Wheat cultivars grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 4(6): 1125-1133.
Blum‚ A. 2005. Mitigation of drought stress by crop management. Available at: www. Plant Stress.com
Chen, Y., and Aviad, T. 1990. Effects of Humic Substances on Plant Growth. In: McCarthy P., Calpp C.E., Malcolm R.L. Bloom, Readings. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI p. 161-186.
El-Bassiouny, H.S.M., Bakry, B.A., El-Monem Attia, A.A., and Abd Allah, M.M. 2014. Physiological role of humic acid and nicotinamide on improving plant growth,yield, and mineral nutrient of wheat (Triticum durum) grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil. Agricultural Sciences 5: 687-700.
El-Shabrawi, H.M., Bakry, B.A., Ahmed, M.A., and Abou-El-Lail, M. 2015. Humic and oxalic acid stimulates grain yield and induces accumulation of plastidial carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in wheat grown under sandy soil conditions. Agricultural Sciences 6: 175-185.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2015. FAOSTAT. Available at web site: http://www.Fao.org
Koocheki, A., Fallahi, H.R., Amiri M.B., and Ehyaei, H.R. 2016. Effects of humic acid application and mother corm weight on yield and growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Agroecology 7(4): 425-442. (In Persian with English Summary)
Krejcirova, L., Capouchova, I., Petr, J., Biconova, E., and Kvapil, R. 2006. Protein composition and quality of winter wheat from organic and conventional farming. Zemdirbyste/ Agriculture 93(4): 285-296.
Kulikova, N.A., Stepanova, E.V., and Koroleva, O.V. 2005. Mitigating activity of humic substances: direct influence on biota. In: I.V. Perminova et al. (ed.). Use of humic substances to remediate polluted environments: from theory to practice. Springer Netherlands. 52: 285-309.
Lodhi, A., Tahir, S., Iqbal, Z., Mahmood, A., Akhtar, M., Qureshi, T.M., Yaqub, M., and Naeem, A. 2013. Characterization of commercial humic acid samples and their impact on growth of fungi and plants. Soil and Plant Environment 32(1): 63-70.
Mauromicale, G., Angela, M.G.L., and Monaco, A.L. 2011. The effect of organic supplementation of solarized soil on the quality of tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 129(2): 189-196.
Mohamed, A., Bakry, A., Soliman, Y.R.A., and Moussa, S.A.M. 2009. Importance of micronutrients, organic manure and bio-fertilizer for improving maize yield and its components grown in desert sandy soil. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5(1): 16-23.
Mollasadeghi, V., Valizadeh, M., Shahryari, R., and Imani, A.A. 2011. Evaluation of drought tolerance of bread wheat genotypes using stress tolerance indices at presence of potassium humate. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 10(2): 151-156.
Moosavifar, B.E., Behdani, M.A., Jami Alahmadi, M., and Hosaini Bojd, M.S. 2009. The effect of irrigation disruption in different reproductive growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content in three spring safflower cultivars. Journal of Agroecology 1(1): 41-51.
Parvazi Shandi, S., Pazoki, A.R., Asgharzadeh, A., and Azadi, A. 2014. Effects of irrigation intervals, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and humic acid on yield and yield components of wheat (Kavir cultivar). Journal of Agroecology 9(32): 9-17. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pordel-Maragheh, F. 2013. Assess the genetic diversity in some wheat genotypes through agronomic traits. European Journal of Zoological Research 2(4): 71-75.
Rashed Mohasel, M., Hosseini, M., Abdi, M., and Mollafilabi, A. 2001. Cereal Crops (Translate). Mashhad Jihad-e Daneshgahi Publications., Mashhad, Iran 408 pp. (In Persian)
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Amiri, M.B., and Ehyaee, H.R. 2016. Effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in a low input cropping system. Journal of Agroecology 7(4): 563-577. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sabzevari, S., Khazaie, H.R., and Kafi, M. 2009. Effect of humic acid on root and shoot growth of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum. L). Journal of Water and Soil 23(2): 87-94.
Shahbazi, S., Fateh, S., and Ayneband, A. 2015. Evaluation of the effect of humic acid and vermicompost on yield and yield components of three wheat cultivars in tropical regions. Journal of Plant Production 38(2): 99-110.
Shahryari, R., and Shamsi, K. 2009. Increasing biological yield of wheat by a humic substance. International Agricultural Engineering Conference. Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand. 7-10 Dec 2009 p. 46.