تأثیر مقادیر مختلف اسید هیومیک و عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست بر روی خصوصیات رشدی، مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی مرزه خوزستانی (Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای آلی (اسید هیومیک و عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست) بر خصوصیات رشدی، مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی مرزه خوزستانی (Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad.) آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی شرکت دارویی خرمان در شهرستان خرم آباد در بهار 1392 به‌ صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل سه غلظت 5، 10و 15 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست و مقادیر 5/1، 5/2 و 5/3 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک بودند که به صورت محلول‌پاشی مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل، ارتفاع بوته، تاج بوته، طول و عرض برگ، عملکرد وزن خشک اندام هوایی، عملکرد وزن خشک برگ، بازده اسانس، عملکرد اسانس، محتوای فنل و فلاونوئید کل بودند. تیمارهای مختلف اسید هیومیک و عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست بر صفات مورفولوژیکی (ارتفاع بوته، تاج بوته، طول و عرض برگ) در طی چهار مرحله نمونه‌برداری قبل از گلدهی تأثیر معنی‌دار نداشتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار وزن خشک اندام هوایی (460 گرم در متر‌مربع)، وزن خشک برگ (33/195 گرم در متر‌مربع) و عملکرد اسانس (38/6 گرم در متر‌مربع) در تیمار 5/3 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک و غلظت 20 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد، که با تیمار شاهد اختلاف معنی‌داری را نشان داد. بیشترین درصد اسانس (43/3 درصد) در تیمار 5/1 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک و غلظت 20 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست دیده شد. تیمار 5/2 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک و غلظت 5 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست با (56/46 میکروگرم گالیک اسید در میلی‌گرم عصاره خشک) و تیمار 5/3 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک و غلظت 5 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست با (13/749 میکروگرم روتین در میلی گرم عصاره خشک) به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیر را بر محتوای فنل و فلاونوئید داشتند. به نظر می‌رسد مصرف مقادیر مناسب از اسید ‌هیومیک و عصاره‌ ورمی‌کمپوست با افزایش مواد آلی خاک، از طریق بهبود فعالیت‌های میکروبی خاک و نیز فراهمی جذب بیشتر عناصر غذایی، سبب افزایش میزان فتوسنتز و ماده خشک گیاهی می‌گردد و در بین تیمار‌های بررسی شده، تیمار 5/3 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک و غلظت 20 درصد عصاره ورمی‌کمپوست به عنوان یکی از بهترین تیمار شناخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Levels of Humic-Acid and Vermicompost extract on Growth, Yield, Morphological and Phytochemical Properties of Satureja khuzistanica JAMZAD

نویسندگان [English]

  • A alizadeh
  • farsad nadjafi
  • j hadian
  • p Salehi
shahid beheshti university
چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Vermicompost tea can be extracted under aerated or non-aerated (passive) conditions. This water extractable compound includes: Active microorganisms, primarily Bacteria, Fungi and some Protozoa, Mineral nutrients, Organic acids and other microbial by-products. Considerable variability in the efficacy of compost tea to promote plant growth has been reported in many experiments. The results suggest that the reasons for the beneficial effects of the compound are complex and depend on many factors, including plant species, compost quality, extraction method, and growing conditions. They may have direct and indirect effects on plant growth and development. The indirect effects of humic compounds on soil fertility include: (i) Increase in the soil microbial population including beneficial microorganisms, (ii) Improved soil structure and (iii) Increase in the cation exchange capacity and the pH buffering capacity of the soil. Directly, humic acid compounds may have various biochemical effects either at cell wall and membrane level or in the cytoplasm, including increased photosynthesis and respiration rates in plants, enhanced protein synthesis and hormone-like activities in plants. Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad is an endemic species of the genus Satureja in Iran. It is a valuable medicinal plant because of high concentration of Rosmarinic Acid in the extract. This plant also has other unique growth properties such as high growth under calcareous and poor soils of arid region.
Materials and methods:
In order to study the effects of different levels of humic acid and vermicompost tea on growth, yield, morphological and phytochemical characters of Satureja khuzistanica, an experiment with factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013. Factors included of three levels of humic acid (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 liter per ha.) and vermicompost tea in concentrations of 5% (5:1, water: vermicompost) 10% and 20% which were sprayed on aerial parts of the plants. Parameters like plant height, plant crown, leaf length, leaf width, shoot dry weight, leaf dry weight, oil content, essential oil yield, content of phenolic and flavonoids compounds were studied in this study to evaluate the effects of the treatments on Satureja Khuzistanica.
Results:
The results showed that treatments of 3.5 l.ha-1 humic acid + 20% vermicompost tea had the maximum dry weight (460 g.m-2 ), leaf dry weight (195.33 g.m-2) and essential oil yield (6.38 g.m-2). The highest essential oil percentage (3.44%) was obtained in the treatment of 1.5 l.ha-1 humic acid + 20% vermicompost tea. The maximum content of phenolic and flavonoids compounds were observed in treatments of 2.5 l.ha-1 humic acid + 5% vermicompost tea (46.56 µg gallic acid /mg dry extract) and 3.5 l.ha-1 humic acid + 5% vermicompost tea (749.13 µg routin /mg dry extract), respectively. The interactions of the humic acid and vermicompost tea effects on plant height, plant crown, leaf length and leaf width were not significant in both years.

Discussion:
Results of this experiment showed that mixed application of humic acid and extract of vermicompost (vermicompost tea) has more positive effects on growth and yield parameters of this plant rather than sole application. Results of Azza et al, (2010) showed that the extract of vermicompost can increase yield, oil content and essential oil yield in Levisticum officinalis. Appropriate amounts of humic acid and vermicompost extract can increase soil organic matter by improving the soil microbial activity and nutrient availability, and this will result in increasing the rate of photosynthesis and plant dry matter so this is a way to ultimately improve the yield, leaf dry weight and the essential oil yield of Satureja khuzistanica. Among the treatments, application of 3.5 l.ha-1 humic acid + 20% of vermicompost tea, had the best effects on growth and yield.
Acknowledgements:
Hereby we appreciate Iran National Science Foundation (Science Deputy of Presidency) for financial support of this project (Nr.85125.61) and Khoraman and FTSS companies which support this project and Mr.Ali Karimi (graduated student of medicinal plants, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University) who cooperate us in this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Medicinal plants
  • Organic farming
  • Organic fertilizer
Abbot, I., and Parker, C.A. 1981. Interactions between earthworms and their soil environment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Agricultural Sciences 13: 191-197.
Adholeya, A., and Prakash, A. 2004. Effect of different organic manures/composts on the herbage and essential oil yield of Cymbopogon winterianus and their influence on the native AM population in a marginal alfisol. Bioresour Technology 92: 311-319.
Akbari Nia, A. 2004. Study yield and essential oil of Ajowan in different agricultural systems, (organic, conventional and integrated). PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbeiat Modarres, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Aryapoor, A., and Mizrahi, R. 2010. Medicinal, Aromatic, Industrial Plants, Forests and Pastures. Agricultural Research and Extension Organization Publication 216-226. (In Persian)
Asmaa, R.M., and Magda, H. 2010. Increasing productivity of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum, L.) by using potassium fertilizer and humic acid application. International Journal of Academic Research 2(2): 83- 88.
Azizi, M., Baghani, M., Lakziyan, A., and Aroei, H. 2007. Effect of different level of vermicompost and vermiwash sprying on morphological traits and essential oils content of Ocimum basilicum. Journal of Horticultural Science 21(2): 41-52 (In Persian with English Summary)
Azza, A., El-Din, E., and Hendaw, S.F. 2010. Effect of dry yeast and compost tea on growth and oil content of Borago officinalis .Researcher Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 6(4): 424-430.
Azza, A., El-Din, E., and Hendawy, S.F. 2010. Comparative Efficiency of organic and chemical on herb production and essential oil of lovage plants grows in Egypt. Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 8(1): 60-66. British Pharmacopoeia, HMSO, London, 1988. 2: 137–138.
Chauhan, R.S., Maheshwari, S.K., and Gandhi, S.K. 2000. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and farm yard manure levels on stem rot of cauliflower caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Agriculture Sciences Digest 20: 36-38.
Dauda, S.N., Ajayi, F.A., and Ndor, E. 2008. Growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) as affected by poultry manure application. Journal Agriculture and Social Sciences 4: 121-124.
El Gendy, S.A., Hosni, A.M., Omer, E.A., and Reham, M.S. 2001. Variation in herbage yield, essential oil yield and oil composition on sweet basil (Ocimum bacilicum) grown organically in a newly reclaimed land in Egypt. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Science 9: 915-933.
El-Mohamedy, R., and Ahmed, M.A. 2009. Effect of biofertilizers and humic acid on control of dry root rot disease and improvement yield quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5(2): 127-137.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 1999. Summary and conclusions. In: 53rd Meeting, Rome, 1-10 June; Rome p. 123-130
Franz, C. 1983. Nutrient and water management for medicinal and aromatic plants. Acta Horticulturae 132: 203-216.
Gharman, A. 2009. Basic Botany, Volume 2, Published by Tehran University, Tehran, Iran pp 492. (In Persian)
Hadian, J. 2008. Assessment of genetic diversity of native species of Satureja. PhD thesis of Horticulture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hoitink, H., Stone, A., and Han, D.Y. 1997. Suppression of plant diseases by composts. Horticultura Science 32: 184–187.
Ilan, I. 1971. Evidence for hormonal regulation of the selectivity of ion uptake by plant cells. Journal of Physiologia Plantarum 5: 230-233.
Ingham, E. 2005. The Compost Tea Brewing Manual; Latest Methods and Research. Soil Food Web Institute.
Jamzad, Z. 2009. Thymus and Satureja species of Iran, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands p. 171.
Keeling, A., and McCallum, K.R., 2003. Mature green waste compost enhances growth and nitrogen uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) through the action of water-extractable factors. Bioresource Technology 90: 127–132.
Kumaran, A., and Karunakaran, R.J. 2006. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chemistry 97: 109-114.
Liuc, J., and Pank, B. 2005. Effect of vermicompost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile. Scientia Pharmaceutica 46: 63-69.
Mahboub Khomami, A. 2005. Effects of biological liquid fertilizer (vermicompost wash) as foliar sprays on feeding and growth indicators of Dieffenbachia and Aglaonema. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(1): 175-187. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mendez, P., Havel, J., and Patocka, J. 2005. Humic substances-compounds of still unknown structure: applications in agriculture, industry, environment and biomedicine. Journal of Applid Biomedicine 3: 12-24.
Muscolo, A., Bovalo, F., Gionfriddo, F., and Nardi, F. 1999. Earthworm humic matter produces Auxin-like effects Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 1303-1311.
Najafi, S., SadeghiNejad, B., Deokule, S.S., and Estakhr, J. 2010. Phytochemical screening of Bidaria khandalense (Sant.) Lorantha uscapitellatus Wall. Viscumarticula tumburm F. and Vitex negundo Linn. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 1: 388-393.
Nehemati darbandi, H., Azizi, M., Mohamadei, S., and Karempor, S. 2012. Study the effect of folia application of different concentration of vermicompost extract (vermicompost wash) on morphological characteristics, essential oil yield and percentage essential oil of Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Journal of Horticulture Science 27: 411-417.
Omidbagi, R. 2009. Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants. Volume 1, 5th Edition. Astan Quds Razavi Publications, Mashhad, Iran 348 pp. (In Persian)
Patil, R.B. 2011. Role of potassium humate on growth and yield of soybean and black gram. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2: 242-246
Radovich, T., Pant, A., Nguyen, H., Sugano, J., and Norman, A. 2011. Promoting plant growth with compost teas: Journal of The Food Provider (2): 420-430.
Rahimi, A., and Pour Mohammadi, A.A. 2017. Effects of vermicompost fertilizer application and foliar spraying on yield and yield component of isabgol (Plantago ovate L.) medicinal plant. Journal of Agroecology 9(3): 834-847.
Sanwal, S.K., Laxminarayana, K., Yadav, D.S., Rai, N., and Yadav, R.K. 2006. Growth, yield, and dietary antioxidants of broccoli as affected by fertilizer type. Journal of Vegetable Science 12: 13-26.
Saruhan, V., Kusvuran, A., and Babat, S. 2011. The effect of different humic acid fertilization on yield and yield components performances of common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Scientific Research and Essays 6(3): 663-669.
Sebahattin, A., and Necdet, C. 2005. Effect of different levels and application times of humic acid on root and leaf yield and yield components of forage turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Agronomy Journal 4: 130-133.
Sharif, M. 2002. Effect of Lignite colal derived humic acid on growth and yield of wheat and maize in alkaline soil. Political Science 171-183.
Weltzein, H.C. 1991. Biocontrol of Foliar Fungal Disease with Compost Extracts. In: Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Ed. by Andrews J.H. and Hirano S.S. Springer, New York, NY p. 430-450.
Yang, C., Wang, M., Chang, Y.F., and Chou, C.H. 2004. Humic substances affect the activity of chlorophyllase. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30(5): 1057-1065.