ارزیابی بیلان انرژی و انتشار دی‌اکسید کربن در مزارع تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 آزاد اسلامی واحد گرگان

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد جویبار

3 پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران

چکیده

بهره‌گیری از مدیریت پایدار گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) به‌منظور افزایش عملکرد و بهینه‌سازی در مصرف نهاده‌ها و حفاظت از محیط-زیست امری ضروری است. لذا، هدف از این پژوهش، ارزیابی بیلان انرژی و انتشار دی‌اکسید کربن در تولید گندم بود. برای انجام این تحقیق، ابتدا شش مزرعه کاشت رایج گندم در شهرستان‌های جویبار، ساری و قائمشهر طی سال زراعی 94-1393 شناسایی شده‌اند. سپس، با روش کاشت بهبود یافته (بر اساس زراعت کم‌نهاده گندم طراحی شده توسط محققان) مقایسه شده‌اند. اطلاعات مربوط به انرژی ناشی از عملیات زراعی مزارع رایج و روش کاشت بهبود یافته ثبت و جمع‌آوری شدند. سپس، مصرف انرژی در هشت بخش شامل تهیه زمین، کاشت، کوددهی، حفاظت گیاه، کنترل علف‌های هرز، آبیاری، برداشت و حمل و نقل به کارخانه طبقه‌بندی شدند. پس از آن، انرژی ورودی و خروجی، شاخص‌های انرژی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی (GWP) ناشی از انتشار دی‌اکسید کربن برآورد شدند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین کل انرژی ورودی در چهار روش‌ کاشت برابر 61/11811 مگاژول در هکتار بود که کم‌ترین میزان انرژی ورودی در روش کاشت بهبودیافته مشاهده شد. در بین تمامی ورودی‌ها، انرژی مصرفی مربوط به نیتروژن با 03/38 درصد در رتبه اول قرار گرفت. انرژی سوخت و بذر در رتبه‌های بعدی قرار گرفتند. بیشترین انرژی تولیدی در روش کاشت بهبودیافته به‌دست آمد که 34/36 درصد از آن مربوط به دانه و 66/63 درصد مربوط به کاه و کلش بود. میانگین انرژی ورودی تجدیدپذیر و تجدیدناپذیر در چهار روش‌ کاشت به‌ترتیب برابر 28/3071 و 33/8740 مگاژول در هکتار بود. میانگین کارایی انرژی در روش‌های‌ کاشت برابر 57/14 بود که بالاترین میزان آن مربوط به روش کاشت بهبودیافته بود. همچنین، میانگین بهره‌وری انرژی در چهار روش‌ کاشت برابر 37/0 کیلوگرم بر مگاژول حاصل شد. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی کل ناشی از فعالیت‌های مختلف در روش‌های‌ کاشت برابر 56/798 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هکتار بود که بیشترین میزان انتشار دی‌اکسید کربن و گرمایش جهانی به‌دلیل ورودی بیشتر مربوط به مصرف نیتروژن، سوخت و بذر بوده است. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در واحد وزن دانه در چهار روش‌ کاشت برابر 2/184 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هر تن دانه بود. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی در واحد انرژی ورودی و خروجی در روش‌های‌ کاشت نیز به‌ترتیب برابر 75/66 و 94/4 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در گیگاژول بود. روش کاشت بهبودیافته با 35/4 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در گیگاژول کم‌ترین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی را در واحد انرژی خروجی دارا بود. به‌طور کلی، میزان GWP ارتباط مستقیمی با شیوه مدیریت مزرعه و مصرف نهاده‌ها نشان داد که در نظام تولید بهبودیافته این شاخص در کمترین مقدار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Energy Balance and CO2 Emissions of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Production

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Pazouki 1
  • Hosein Ajam Nouruzi 1
  • Abbas Ghanbari Malidareh 1
  • Mohammad Reza Dadashi 2
  • Salman Dastan 3
1 Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University
3 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Among the various factors affecting agricultural production, climatic conditions of the natural environment variables are effected .On the other hand the agriculture development , the exact knowledge of environmental characteristics and management practices is anywhere special in semi-arid zone. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) due to the extensive roots and permeability and also the ability to set the number of leaves and fruits when the plant is under water stress, is a suitable crop for planting in arid and semi-arid climate. South Khorasan Province has dry and desert climatic conditions in post-semi-arid and semi-arid climates in mountainous regions. South Khorasan province produces 34 thousand tons of cotton annually and planted 13 thousand hectares of irrigated cotton production ranks second in the country.
Materials and Methods
South Khorasan province is located in the east of Iran with an area of 149,107 square kilometers and is located between the geographical circle of 30° and 31´ to 34° and 53´of northern latitudes and 57° and 3´to 57° and 60´ of east. This study is to evaluate the climatic conditions for the cotton cultivation in the history of different cultures in South Khorasan province in a 25-year period (2015-1990 AD). For this purpose, fifteen stations of South Khorasan province and to help software environment for modeling and spatial analysis was performed by Arc GIS. By taking advantage of favorable climatic conditions at each stage of cotton growth, data layers of classification and weighting values for each zone was determined and prepared. Finally, in order to overlay layers by using multi-criteria decision-making methods based the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the final maps was set for each date based on climatic factors for the cultivation date of cotton in Khorasan South,
Results and Discussion
According to the results obtained in the zoning of cultivars, in the western and southern parts of the province, suitable planting dates will continue from the first and second half of the April month. The planting dates in the central and northern regions and part of the south of the province would continue from the first and the first half of second months of year and the first half of May. In the eastern part of province, suitable planting dates would continue from the second half of June and the first half of July. Considering the cotton needs if this plant in different regions of South Khorasan Province was cultivated in suitable dates, there will be no growth inhibitory temperatures. The results of all cultivar maps indicated that from all planting dates from April to July, the best cultivation date was for the first half and the second half of the month of may, In the first half of the first month of July, due to lack of rainfall and temperature increase, it is not suitable for the flowering and flowering stages of cotton, and it will be treated at a lower temperature when it is processed. On the cultivation of the first half and second half of April the appropriate areas, is in western and southern regions of the cotton cultivation.
Conclusion
The results was showed that the role of each of the climatic factor of including temperature and precipitation, fits any cultivation date in different regions and cultures of all dates from April to July, the best planting date from the first half and the second half of May, because of, respectively,with area of 84,680 and 103,100 square kilometer area of the right to have the largest area. For all climatic conditions also have an important loss condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate
  • date of sowing
  • GIS
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