پهنه‌بندی زمانی و مکانی اراضی مستعد کشت پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (مطالعه‌ موردی استان خراسان جنوبی)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

در بین عوامل مختلف تأثیرگذار در تولید محصولات کشاورزی، شرایط اقلیمی از مهمترین متغیرهای محیط طبیعی است. از سویی دیگر، اساس توسعه کشاورزی، آگاهی دقیق از ویژگی‌های محیطی در هر نقطه و اعمال مدیریت ویژه می‌باشد. پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) به‌دلیل داشتن ریشه‌های گسترده و نفوذپذیر و همچنین دارا بودن قابلیت تنظیم تعداد برگ و میوه زمانی که گیاه تحت شرایط تنش قرار می‌گیرد و نیز داشتن دوره قوزه‌دهی قابل انعطاف از گیاهان مناسب برای کشت در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک محسوب می‌شود. بر این اساس، این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی شرایط اقلیمی برای کشت پنبه در تاریخ‌های کشت مختلف در استان خراسان جنوبی در یک دوره آماری 25 ساله (۱۳۹۴-۱۳۷۴) صورت گرفت. بدین منظور، پانزده ایستگاه هواشناسی استان خراسان جنوبی انتخاب و به کمک محیط نرم‌افزاری GIS Arc مدل‌سازی و تحلیل فضایی صورت گرفت. با بهره‌گیری از شرایط اقلیمی مطلوب در هر مرحله از رشد پنبه، لایه‌های اطلاعاتی کلاس‌بندی و ارزش وزنی هر کدام از عوامل مشخص گردید. در نهایت، به‌منظور هم‌پوشانی لایه‌های اطلاعاتی با استفاده از روش‌های تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره مبتنی بر روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، نقشه‌های نهایی مربوط به هر تاریخ کشت از نیمه اول فروردین تا نیمه اول تیر براساس عوامل اقلیمی برای کشت پنبه در استان خراسان جنوبی تهیه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که نقش هر یک از عناصر اقلیمی بارش و دما، متناسب با هر تاریخ کشت، در مناطق مختلف استان متفاوت بود و اهمیت آن بیشتر از عوامل زمینی بود و از بین همه تاریخ‌های کشت از فروردین ماه تا تیرماه، بهترین تاریخ کشت مربوط به نیمه اول و نیمه دوم اردیبهشت ماه بود، چون از نظر مساحت مناطق مناسب به‌ترتیب 56 و 68 درصد بیشترین مساحت را به خود اختصاص داده اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial and Temporal Zoning of Suitable Lands for Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) Cultivation using Analytical Hierarchy Process (Case study: South Khorasan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • soaod hosseini
  • -Mohammad Ali -Behdani
  • abbas khashei siuki
university of birjand
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Climatic conditions are the most effectiveness than from the natural environment variables for agricultural production On the other hand the base of agriculture development, especially in semi-arid zone is the accurate knowledge of environmental characteristics and its management practices. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), due to the extensive roots and permeability and the ability to set the number of leaves and fruits under water stress, is a suitable crop for planting in arid and semi-arid climates. South Khorasan Province is a dry, desert and mountainous region with post-semi-arid and semi-arid climates. South Khorasan province produces 34000tons of cotton annually with 13000 hectares of irrigated cotton lands and the second position in cotton production ranking in Iran.
Materials and Methods
South Khorasan Province is located in the east of Iran with an area of 149,107 square kilometers and the geographical coordinates of 30 degrees and 31 minutes to 34 degrees and 53 minutes of northern latitudes and 57 degrees and 3 minutes to 57 degrees and 60 minutes of eastern longitude. This study was performed to evaluate the climatic conditions for the cultivation of cotton in the history of different cultures in South Khorasan province in a 25-year period (1990-2015). For this purpose, fifteen stations of South Khorasan province was chosen as target and modeling and spatial analysis was performed by Arc GIS. By using advantage of favorable climatic conditions at each stage of cotton growth, was prepared data layers of classification and weighting values for each of the zones. Eventually, in order to overlay layers using multi-criteria decision-making methods based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the final maps was prepared for each date based on the climatic factors of the cotton cultivation date in South Khorasan.
Results and Discussion
According to the results obtained from zonation of different cultivars, in the western and southern parts of the province, the suitable planting date will be from the first to second half of the April. This is while the planting date in the central and northern regions and some parts of the south of the province will continue from the first month of cultivate (March) to the first half of the second month until the first half of May. In the eastern parts of the province, suitable planting dates will continue from the second half of June to the first half of July. Considering the cotton ecological needs, if the plant cultivated in suitable planting date in different regions of the South Khorasan Province, there will be no growth inhibitory temperatures for this crop. The results of all cultivar maps indicate that among all planting dates from April to July, the best cultivation date was the first half to the second half of May, because they have the largest area in terms of area of suitable areas. The first half of July, due to lack of rainfall and temperature increase, is not a suitable time for flowering stage of cotton, because of it will be treated at a lower temperature when it is processed. Therefore, just with the reduction of the product. For cultivation of cotton in the first and second half of April the appropriate areas are western and southern regions of the province.
Conclusion
The results was showed that the role of temperature and precipitation as climatic factors, were difficult for any cultivation date in different regions and cultures of all dates from April to July. The best planting date from the first half and the second half of May, because of, respectively, 84,680 and 103,100 square kilometer area of the right to have the largest area. For all climatic conditions also have an important loss condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate
  • date of sowing
  • GIS
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