بررسی ابعاد مختلف پایداری در نظام‌های تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) و پسته (Pistacia vera L.) استان کرمان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی جنبه‌های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زراعی و مدیریتی پایداری دو نظام تولید پسته (Pistacia vera L.) و گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) که غالبیت کشت را در استان کرمان دارا هستند، اجرا شد. اطلاعات مربوط به این نظام‏های کشاورزی شامل سنجه‏های اجتماعی- اقتصادی، تولید محصولات زراعی و دامی، کود و نهاده‌های شیمیایی، مدیریت بقایای گیاهی، منابع آب و آبیاری، شخم و مکانیزاسیون، تنوع گونه‏ای کشاورزی و مدیریت علف‏های هرز در مناطق اصلی مورد کشت این دو گیاه در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. بررسی ویژگی‌های فردی کشاورزان نشان داد که میانگین سنی آن‌ها در نظام‌های تولید گندم و پسته به‌ترتیب حدود 43 و 39 سال بود. در هر دو نظام مورد بررسی، افراد با تحصیلات دیپلم بالاترین فراوانی را داشتند. میانگین عملکرد گندم 3460 و پسته 573 کیلوگرم در هکتار برای استان گزارش شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان مصرف کود و نهاده‏های شیمیایی، در هر دو محصول و به‌ویژه در پسته به‌شدت بالا بوده که این امر مغایر با اهداف کشاورزی پایدار می‌باشد. متوسط درآمد سالانه برای گندم و پسته به‌ترتیب 4 و 18 میلیون تومان بود. بررسی سنجه‌های مختلف پایداری نشان داد که شاخص پایداری در گندم 26/47 و در پسته 22/44 بود که هر دو در گروه تا حدودی ناپایدار قرار می گیرند. سنجه‌های مدیریت بقایای گیاهی در نظام تولید گندم و سنجه اجتماعی-اقتصادی در پسته نسبت به دیگر سنجه‌ها از وضعیت مناسب‏تری برخوردار بودند. به طور کلی، نهاده‌های شیمیایی، آب آبیاری و عدم ثبات اقتصادی کشاورزان، اصلی‌ترین مشکلات در زمینه پایداری بوده و برای حصول به پایداری باید جنبه‌های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زراعی و مدیریتی مورد بازبینی و اصلاح قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing Various Aspects of Sustainability in Wheat and Pistachio Agro-ecosystems of Kerman Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Naghizadeh
  • Rooholla Moradi
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Agricultural sustainability is the ability of an agro-ecosystem to either maintain or to implement the productive characteristics and taking into consideration both the ecological-environmental and socio-economic aspects. Sustainable agriculture implies long term maintenance of natural systems, optimal production with minimum input, adequate income per farming unit, fulfillment of basic food needs, and provision for the demands and necessities of rural families and communities. All definitions of sustainable agriculture promote environmental, economic and social harmony in an effort to attain the meaning of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a sustainability index for quantifying the different aspects of sustainability as economical, social, agronomical and management for wheat and pistachio production systems which are dominant systems in Kerman province.

Materials and Methods
In the present study all aspects of agricultural sustainability including ecological, social and economic was selected..Accordingly, the sustainability index, a set of 82 indicators for wheat and pistachio crops were designed, to collect data through questionnaires and then analyze it. Sustainability indices include socio-economic indices, fertilizer and chemicals, crops and livestock production, crop residue management, irrigation water, diversity of agricultural systems, mechanization, tillage and weed management in the main cultivation area in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. Sustainability index was calculated using the weighting sum. Therefore the rate of contribution for each specific indicator in the final index and rating of all indicators were done from zero to its maximum rated indicators with regard to the most unfavorable situation to the most favorable indicators. After scoring each measure, the total scores of indicators is accumulated and was introduced as the final score. After designing the indicators, 295 and 234 questionnaires were completed for wheat and pistachio, respectively. Farms were selected randomly. Data were analyzed using Excel and SAS software.

Results and Discussion
The Study of individual characteristics of farmers showed that the average age of farmers for wheat and pistachios production systems was about 43 and 39 years respectively. Age was considered as an important factor in displaying the features of one’s personality. Therefore, young group is more zealous and earnest in their work and can handle farming activities more efficiency. In both studied systems, those who had high school education had the highest frequency. Education may enhance farm productivity directly by improving the quality of labor, increasing the ability to adjust to disequilibria, and through its effect upon the propensity to adopt innovation successfully. Average yield was reported 3460 kg ha-1for wheat and 573 kg ha-1for pistachios. Crop production is an indicator of system efficiency, in regard to genetic potential, ecological conditions, management, capital investment and labor use. The results showed that, unfortunately, the fertilizer and chemical inputs, especially in pistachio, is extremely high, which is inconsistent with the approaches of sustainable agriculture. The average annual income in wheat and pistachio was gained 4 and 18 million tooman, respectively. Non-agricultural income sources make sure to provide sufficient income to the farmers. Reduction in rural incomes will lead to different immigration outcomes. Family economic security directly affects on the economic sustainability of agriculture. Assessing various sustainability indicators showed that the sustainability index in wheat and pistachio was 47.2 and 44.2, respectively, and also that these agro-ecosystems are not sustainable. Crop residue management indicator in wheat and socio-economic in pistachios production systems had a better condition than other indicators. The results indicated that chemical inputs, irrigation water and the lack of economic stability for farmers, are the main problems in the field of sustainability and to achieve the stability in wheat and pistachio agro-ecosystems, various aspects of economic, social, agronomic and management should be reviewed and revised.
Conclusion
In generally, to increase the sustainability of the wheat and pistachio agro-ecosystems, the following strategies are suggested: The sprinkler irrigation method must be developed and use of urea fertilizer and pesticide should be decreased. The best managements of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, social- individual characteristics of farmers, crop production and crop residual management can cause the sustainability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • index
  • Income
  • Indicator
  • management
  • Socio- economic
Aghapoor, M., and Rafiei, H. 2010. Effect of optimized crop rotation on sustainability of farmers income: Case study. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 2: 81-92. (In Persian with English Summary)
Alibeigi, A., and Baboli, M. 2009. An assessment of the sustainability of agriculture practiced by wheat growing farmers in sarpole-zahab Township (application of DSR model). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 1: 111-122. (In Persian with English Summary)
Andreoli, M., and Tellarini, V. 2000. Farm sustainability evaluation: methodology and practice. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 77: 43-52.
Arabion, A.G., Kalantari, K., Asadi, A., and Shabanali Fami, H. 2010. Measuring sustainability level of wheat cropping system in Fars province and determining affecting factors. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education Journal. 5: 17- 28. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bajwa, A.A. 2014. Sustainable weed management in conservation agriculture. Crop Protection 65: 105-113.
Campiglia, E., Mancinelli, R., Di Felice, V., and Radicetti, E. Long-term residual effects of the management of cover crop biomass on soil nitrogen and yield of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda). Soil and Tillage Research 139: 1-7.
Comer, S., Ekanem, E., Muhammad, S., Singh, S., and Tegegne, F. 1999. Sustainable and conventional farmers: a comparison of socio-economic characteristics, attitude and beliefs. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 15: 29-45.
Dehghani, M., and Abbasnejad, A. 2010. Assesing polution of groundwater of Anar plain as affected by nitrait, Cu and arsenic, cadmium. Journal of Ecology 56: 87-100. (In Persian with English Summary)
Gupta, G. 1997. A Curriculum in sustainable agriculture. Journal of Natural Resource and Life Science Education 26: 177-179.
Hasanshahi, H., Iravani, H., and Kalantari, K. 2009. An assessment of the levels of farming system sustainability among wheat growing farmers in agricultural production cooperatives (Fars Province). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 2: 135-143. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hayati, D., and Karami, A. 1997. Creation of an index for assessing agro-ecosystems sustainability for using in economical- social researches. 1th Confernce of Agricultural Economic of Iran. Sistan and Baluchestan University. (In Persian)
Ito, T., Araki, M., Higashi, T., Komatsuzaki, M., Kaneko, N., and Ohta, H. 2015. Responses of soil nematode community structure to soil carbon changes due to different tillage and cover crop management practices over a nine-year period in Kanto, Japan. Applied Soil Ecology 89: 50-58.
Jalilian, J. 2012. Sustainability assessment of wheat-sugar beet agro-ecosystem (Case study: Piranshahr County). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 10: 609-615.
Kamkar, B., and Mahdavi Damghani, A.M. 2008. Principles of Sustainable Agriculture. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, Mashhad, Iran 225 p. (In Persian)
Koocheki, A. 1998. A Quantifying Approach for Evaluating Sustainable Agriculture in Iran. In: G.S. Dhaliwal, N.S. Randhawa, R. Arora, A.K. Dhawan (Eds.). Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development. pp. 451-457. India.
Koocheki, A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2005. Evaluation of student's awareness from the principles of sustainable agriculture within Iran universities. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 2: 2-14. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Moradi, R., and Mansoori, H. 2017. Strategies of transition to sustainable agriculture in Iran I- Improving resources use efficiency. Journal of Agroecology 9: 618-637. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kramberger, B., Gselman, A., Kristl, J., Lešnik, M., Šuštar, V., Muršec, M., and Podvršnik, M. 2014. Winter cover crop: the effects of grass–clover mixture proportion and biomass management on maize and the apparent residual N in the soil. European Journal of Agronomy 55: 63-71.
Mahdavi Damghani, A. 2005. Quantifying ecological sustainability using systems aproch: Khorasan as a case study. PhD Thesis of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mahdavi Damghani, A., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2005. Ecological sustainability of a wheat-cotton agroecosystem in Khorassan. Iranian Field Crop Research 3: 129-142. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mohamadianfar, A., Asgharipour, M.R., Sirousmehr, A., and Ramroodi, M. 2013. Study of ecological sustainability of the wheat in the city of Torbat-E-Jam. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 23: 117-127. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pannell, D.J., and Schilizzi, S. 1999. Sustainable agriculture: a question of ecology, equity, economic efficiency or expedience? Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 13: 57- 66.
Snedecor, G.W., and Cochran, W.G. 1976. Statistical Methods, 7th Ed. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Silva, G.L., Lima, H.V., Campanha, M.M., Gilkes, R.J., and Oliveira, T.S. 2011. Soil physical quality of Luvisols under agroforestry, natural vegetation and conventional crop management systems in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Geoderma 167: 61-70.
Smith, C.S., and McDonald, G.T. 2008. Assessing the sustainability of agriculture at the planning stage. Journal of Environmental Management 52: 15-37.
Smith, P. 2004. Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context. European Journal of Agronomy 20: 229-236.
Verma, J.P., Kumar, D., Singh, V. and Meena, R.S. 2015. Current need of organic farming for enhancing sustainable agriculture. Journal of Cleaner Production 102: 545-547.
Xu, X., Hou, L., Lin, H., Liu, W. 2006. Zoning of sustainable agricultural development in China. Agricultural Systems 87: 38-62.