تأثیر کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک بر عملکرد زیست‌توده و مقدار پلی فنول‌های برگ گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pomilum Jacq.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک بر عملکرد رویشی و میزان پلی فنول‌های برگ کاسنی پاکوتاه، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 91-190، انجام گرفت .در این آزمایش فاکتورکودهای آلی و شیمیایی در چهار سطح (چهار تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری، چهار تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست،130 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و عدم مصرف کود (شاهد)) و فاکتورکود زیستی در دو سطح (کود زیستی بیوسولفور به همراه 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود گوگرد خالص و عدم مصرف آن (شاهد)) استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از وجود تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایش بر وزن تر و خشک زیست‌توده در چین اول و دوم و مجموع وزن خشک زیست‌توده در هر دو چین بود. بیشترین عملکرد وزن تر زیست‌توده در هر دو چین از تیمار تلفیقی کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی بیوسولفور حاصل شد. نتایج در چین اول و دوم و مجموع دو چین نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد خشک زیست‌توده از تیمار کمپوست حاصل شد. همچنین اثرات ساده و متقابل فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه، بر میزان پلی فنول‌های موجود در برگ گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pomilum Jacq.) در هر دو چین معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین میزان پلی فنول‌های برگ در تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و کمترین میزان در تیمار تلفیقی کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی بیوسولفور در هر دو چین حاصل شد. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد در بین منابع کودی مختلف، کود آلی کمپوست هم در عملکرد رویشی و هم در مقدار پلی‌فنول گیاه اثر مثبتی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers Application on Biomass Yield and Poly-phenols Contents of Dwarf Chicory Leaves (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farima Doaei 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 1
  • Reza Ghorbani 1
  • Ahmad Balandary 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Research Institute for Food Science, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) is an annual species from chicory genus in Asteraceae family grows in Western and Southern parts of Iran which is used as a traditional medicinal herb. To date there are a few studies on this species which have been carried out under field conditions. Dwarf Chicory can be used for cancer treatment. In many studies, the presence of phenolic and terpene lactones has been confirmed in chicory tissue. Each type of fertilizer (chemical, organic and biofertilizer) has its advantages and disadvantages but due to the problems caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, organic and biological fertilizers can be used as alternatives to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and produce sustainable agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers and biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) in different cuttings.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and 36°15 N ) during 2011-2012 growing season. Plots were designed with 4 m long and 2.5 m width, 1 m apart each other. Between blocks, 1 m alley was kept. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (Urban compost 4 t. ha-1, vermin-compost 4 t. ha-1, urea fertilizer 130 kg. ha-1 and control) and biological fertilizer (Biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg. ha-1 and control). Seed sowing was performed by hand on the middle of the furrows. Seedlings were thinned at the four-six leaf stage. The irrigation was done after seed sowing two times per week until plant establishment and then with weekly irrigation until maturity stage. Weeds were removed by hand during growing seasons. Harvesting was performed before stem initiation at the first cut and flower initiation at the second cut and then biological yields were measured by harvesting 2.25 m2 of the central part of each plot. Folin-Ciocalteu method of assay was used to measure leaf polyphenols. Comparison of means were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% and 1% probability level by using SAS and MSTAT-C statistical software.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that organic and chemical fertilizers and its interactions had significant effect on fresh and dry weight of biomass in the first and the second cuts and total accumulated biomass. The highest fresh weight of biomass at both cuts and total accumulated biomass were observed in chemical fertilizer + biosulfur biofertilizer treatment. It seems that readily and immediately available of nitrogen and sulfur elements in chemical fertilizer + biosulfur biofertilizer treatment increased the biomass yield of the plant. Compost treatment produced the highest dry weight of biomass in both cuts and total accumulated biomass. Results indicated that studied factors and their interactions had significant effect on poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves in both cuts. The highest and the lowest poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves in both cuts were observed in vermi-compost and chemical fertilizer+ biosulfur biofertilizer treatments, respectively. It seems that the slow growth and low shading of the leaves were the main reason to increase polyphenols and the absence of nitrogen deficiency and low soil pH cause reduced the concentration of polyphenols.

Conclusion
According to the results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that the compost treatment had a positive effect on vegetative yield and poly-phenols contents of dwarf chicory leaves and its use can be an effective step towards achieving sustainable agriculture and replacing the use of chemical fertilizers. Our results revealed that total poly-phenols contents declined by increasing nitrogen and decreasing pH.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biosulfur biofertilizer
  • Compost
  • Medicinal plant
  • Vermi-compost
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