تأثیر مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست و عناصر کم‌مصرف بر کمیت و کیفیت علوفه گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بیرجند

2 بیرجند

چکیده

در مطالعه حاضر کمیت و کیفیت علوفه گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) تحت تأثیر مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست و کودهای تکمیلی در دو منطقه در استان کرمان در سال زراعی 94-1393 ارزیابی شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل ترکیبی از دو سطح ورمی‌کمپوست (صفر و شش تن در هکتار) و 12 سطح کودهای تکمیلی (عدم کاربرد، گوگرد 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار، گوگرد 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار، روی با غلظت سه میلی‌لیتر در لیتر، بُر با غلظت دو میلی‌لیتر در لیتر، چهار ترکیب دوگانه و دو ترکیب سه‌گانه این سه عنصر) بود. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست باعث افزایش عملکرد ماده خشک و مقادیر خاکستر، کلسیم و پروتئین خام شد، ولی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر چربی خام و فیبر نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی و شوینده خنثی نداشت. کاربرد شش تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست با افزایش 2/37 درصدی عملکرد ماده خشک همراه بود. افزودن کودهای تکمیلی به‌ویژه در حالات ترکیبی با افزایش ماده خشک، خاکستر، کلسیم، پروتئین خام و چربی خام و کاهش فیبرهای نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی و خنثی باعث افزایش کیفیت علوفه گردید. مقدار ماده خشک بوته‌ها در تیمار بدون کاربرد کودهای تکمیلی 1/46 درصد کمتر از تیمار مصرف ترکیبی 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار گوگرد با روی و بُر بود. پاسخ بوته‌ها هم به ورمی‌کمپوست و هم به کودهای تکمیلی در کرمان بهتر از بردسیر بود. علاوه بر شرایط آب و هوایی، وضعیت بهتر خاک در مزرعه کرمان می‌تواند دلیل این تفاوت باشد. به‌طورکلی، در هر دو مکان، کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست و کودهای تکمیلی اثر هم‌افزایی داشت، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین و بهترین علوفه در تیمارهای کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست همراه با ترکیب سه‌گانه گوگرد، روی و بُر مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Karimi Gogheri 1
  • Mohammadali Behdani 1
  • Mohammadhassan Fathi 2
  • Seyed Vahid Eslami 2
1 University of Birjand
2 University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Optimum growth and acceptable quality of safflower requires sufficient and balanced amount of micro- and macronutrients in the soil. The macronutrients in soil include nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can be provided by organic such as vermicompost. Sulfur (S) also is a most important macro-nutrient that mainly involved in the production of the protein, oil and improve the quality of crops. The most important micronutrients include boron (B) and zinc (Zn) are essential for optimal growth and quality of plants. Boron is vital element for normal growth and its deficiency causes stunted growth and reduced quality. Zinc plays an important role in various biochemical processes of plants, so that each secondary factor that reduce availability of this element to plants causes deficiency symptoms in various forms such as reduced growth, yield and zinc concentration in different plants organ such as grain . Integrated application of vermicompost and additional fertilizers positively interact to increase plant growth and forage quality. Safflower is one of the most important oil crops in Iran, which in some cases could also have industrial or forage applications. In addition to oil purpose, safflower has also potential for forage production for livestock.
Material and Methods
The current study was carried out in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in two areas in Kerman Province. The treatments included two vermicompost levels: 0 and 6 t.ha-1 and 12 additional fertilizers combinations: no additional fertilizers use, 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur (S1), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur (S2), 3 ml.L-1 zinc (Zn), 2 ml.L-1 boron (B), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur + zinc (S1Zn), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur + boron (S1B), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur + zinc (S2Zn), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur + boron (S2B), zinc + boron (ZnB), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur + zinc + boron (S1ZnB) and 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur + zinc + boron (S2ZnB). Sulphur was used as granulated fertilizers in soil applied form, while zinc and boron were applied as foliar spraying in solutions with 35% and 22% purity, respectively. The measured traits included dry matter, ash, calcium, crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF).
Results and Discussion
This study results, showed that the effects of location and additional fertilizers were significant on all measured traits, while vermicompost had significant effect on dry matter, ash, calcium and crude protein. In the other hand, interactions of location -vermicompost and location -vermicompost-additional fertilizers interactions significantly affected forage dry matter and extract ether. The results showed that vermicompost application increased dry matter yield (37.2%) and amount of ash (29.9%), calcium (20.8%) and crude protein (32%), but, had no significant effect on ether extract and acid detergent fibers and neutral detergent fibers. Additional fertilizers had positive and significant effect on all measured traits, so that plants treated with additional fertilizers, especially with combined application had more yield and amount of ash, calcium, crude protein, ether extract, however had lower acid detergent fibers and neutral detergent fibers. Usually there is a negative relation between ADF and NDF with crude protein. Dry matter digestibility means lower ADF and NDF in forage resulting in a better quality. For example, dry matter of plant in the treatment of no additional fertilizer use was less than S2ZnB by 46.1%. Additional fertilizers such as sulfur, zinc, and boron are among the major factors affecting crop quality, therefore, the researchers recommend that the additional fertilizers are also added to the basic fertilizers (N, P and K) (Altaf et al., 2000). Response of safflower to vermicompost and additional fertilizers was more in Kerman compared with Bardsir. In addition to climatic conditions, better soil properties in Kerman might be a probability reason. It could be concluded that safflower forage quality, especially in Kerman was equal to quality of forage plants such as maize, sorghum and millet.

Conclusion
In general, the results of this study implies an increase in dry matter yield and forage quality of safflower as affected by combined application of vermicompost with 100 kg.ha-1 sulphur soil applied and foliar application of zinc and boron.

Present study was carried out in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in two areas in Kerman Province. The treatments included two vermicompost levels: 0 and 6 t.ha-1 and 12 additional fertilizers combinations: no additional fertilizers use, 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur (S1), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur (S2), 3 ml.L-1 zinc (Zn), 2 ml.L-1 boron (B), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur+zinc (S1Zn), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur+boron (S1B), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur+zinc (S2Zn), 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur+boron (S2B), zinc+boron (ZnB), 100 kg.ha-1 sulfur+zinc+boron (S1ZnB) and 200 kg.ha-1 sulfur+zinc+boron (S2ZnB). Sulphur was used as granulated fertilizers in soil applied form, while zinc and boron were applied as foliar spraying in solutions with 35% and 22% purity, respectively. The measured traits included dry matter, ash, calcium, crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF).
Analysis of variance showed effects of place and additional fertilizers were significant on all measured traits, while vermicompost had significant effect on dry matter, ash, calcium and crude protein. In the other hand, place-vermicompost and place-vermicompost-additional fertilizers interactions significantly affected forage dry matter and extract ether. The results showed that vermicompost application increased dry matter yield (37.2%) and amount of ash (29.9%), calcium (20.8%) and crude protein (32%), however, had no significant effect on ether extract and acid detergent fibers and neutral detergent fibers. additional fertilizers had positive and significant effect on all measured traits, so that plants treated with additional fertilizers, especially with combined application had more matter yield and amount of ash, calcium, crude protein, ether extract, however had lower acid detergent fibers and neutral detergent fibers. Usually there is a negative relations between ADF and NDF with crude protein, dry matter digestibility means lower ADF and NDF in forage resulting in a better quality. For example, dry matter of plant in no additional fertilizers use treatment was less than S2ZnB by 46.1%. additional fertilizers such as sulfur, zinc, and boron are among the major factors affecting crop quality, therefore, the researchers recommend that the additional fertilizers are also added to the basic fertilizers (N, P and K) (Altaf et al., 2000). Safflower response to vermicompost and additional fertilizers was more in Kerman compared with Bardsir. In addition to climatic conditions, better soil properties in Kerman might be a probability reason. It could be concluded that safflower forage quality, especially in Kerman was equality to quality of forage plants such as maize, sorghum and millet.
In general, the results of this study in two places, implies an increase in dry matter yield and forage quality of safflower as affected by combined application of vermicompost with 100 kg.ha-1 sulphur soil applied and foliar application of zinc and boron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ash
  • Ether extract
  • Sulphur
  • Zinc
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