تأثیر مدیریت توزیع نیتروژن بر جذب و کارایی مصرف نور در ژنوتیپ‌های سورگوم علوفه‌ای Sorghum bicolor L. Moench))

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکزتحقیقات کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نیشابور

چکیده

چکیده:
یکی از مهمترین عوامل مؤثر بر اختلاف عملکرد در ژنوتیپ‌های سورگوم علوفه‌ای (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) چگونگی دریافت و جذب تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی تحت تأثیر میزان و چگونگی توزیع نیتروژن مصرفی می‌باشد. به‌منظور ارزیابی تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی تجمعی (CPAR) و کارایی مصرف نور(RUE) در شرایط تقسیط و عدم تقسیط کود نیتروژن، طرح آماری به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار بر روی 15 ژنوتیپ سورگوم علوفه‌ای (لاین‌های امید‌بخش) به اجرا درآمد. در طول آزمایش، صفات شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد ماده خشک و میزان تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی جذب شده طی پنج مرحله نمونه‌برداری اندازه‌گیری و محاسبه شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد اثر ژنوتیپ بر عملکرد ماده خشک گیاه و کارایی مصرف نور معنی‌دار (p≤0.05) بود و حداکثر و حداقل آن به‌ترتیب 17/20 و 56/13 تن در هکتار برای ماده خشک و 18/4 و 06/3 گرم بر مگاژول برای کارایی مصرف نور به‌ترتیب به ژنوتیپ‌های kfs17 و kfs10 اختصاص داشت. شیوه توزیع نیتروژن و اثر متقابل نیتروژن و ژنوتیپ بر شاخص سطح برگ معنی‌دار (p≤0.05) بود و توزیع دوباره نیتروژن موجب افزایش شاخص سطح برگ به‌میزان نه درصد و همچنین PAR تجمعی به میزان دو درصد شد. نتایج این بررسی حاکی است که اختلاف در عملکرد ماده خشک ژنوتیپ-های سورگوم علوفه‌ای ناشی از اختلاف درهر دو جزء مؤثر در تولید ماده خشک یعنی کارایی مصرف نور و PAR تجمعی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Distribution Nitrogen Fertilizer Management on Absorbed and Radiation Use Efficiency in Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

نویسندگان [English]

  • alireza beheshti 1
  • ehsan seyyed kaboli 2
1 Khorasan Razavei Agriculture Natural Resources, Research Center Mashhad, Iran.
2 Azad university of Neyshabur
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Dry matter production is a function of photosynthesis active radiation absorption (APAR) and radiation use efficiency. Sorghum genotypes are different in total dry matter, but the reason of these different is not clear. Producing dry matter is affected by nitrogen distributing method, but the way of this effectiveness on producing of dry matter in sorghum genotypes is not also specified. This paper focused on evaluation of receiving and absorbing PAR, which is affected by nitrogen usage method in forage sorghum genotypes, and reasons of the differences between these genotypes in production of dry matter. The variation in efficiency of APAR depends on two chemical and morphological characteristics of the vegetation, including canopy nitrogen content (NCANOPY) and the canopy average for mass per unit of area (Merea).

Material and Methods
In order to investigate the cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) under distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing conditions, an experiment was conducted at Khorasan Razavei Agriculture and Natural Resources , Research Center Mashhad , Iran. The statical method was according to spilt plots base on randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots were fifteen forage sorghum genotypes (Promising lines kfs1, kfs2, kfs3, kfs6, kfs7, kfs8, kfs9, kfs10, kfs11, kfs12, kfs13, kfs15, kfs16, kfs17, kfs18) and the subplots consisted of distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing. The samples were obtained 5 times during the growing season for determination of some characteristics including dry matter (TDM), leaf area index (LAI) and Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Then total dry matter (TDM), cumulative Photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) were calculated by these traits. Absorbed radiation measured by Sub Scan model SSI-UM-1.05 on five location of each plot on bottom and top of each plot at 12 o’clock each day, five times by destructive samples. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) calculated by regression lines obtained by slope of total dry matter (TDM) and cumulative radiation use absorption (CPAR) by this equation Y=a0*x.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the effect of genotype on total dry matter was significant (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cumulative photosynthetically active radiation
  • Leaf Area Index
  • yields potential
Akmal, M., and Janssens, M.J.J. 2004. Productivity and light use efficiency of perennial ryegrass with contrasting water and nitrogen supplies. Field Crops Research 88: 143-155.
Andrade, F.H., Otegui, M.E., and Vega, C. 2000. Intercepted radiation at flowering and kernel number in maize. Agronomy Journal 92: 92-97.
Andriou, B., and Sinquet, H. 1993. Evaluation of structure description requirements for predicting gap fraction of vegetation canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 65: 207-227
Andriou, B., Ivanov, N., and Boissard, P. 1995. Simulation of light intercropping from a maize canopy model constructed by stereo plotting. Agricultural and Meteorology 75: 85-102.
Beheshti, A.R., and Behbodifard, B. 2010. Study dry matter accumulation and remobilization in grain sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) under drought stress. Australian Journal of Crop Science 4: 185-189.
Beheshti, A.R., Koocheki, A.R., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 1999. Effect of planting pattern on light interception and radiation use efficiency in maize cultivars. Seed and Plant 4(18): 431-437. (In Persian with English Summary)
Birch, C.J., and Stewart, A.D. 1989. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer rate and timing on yield of hybrid forage sorghum from serial harvest. Australian Sorghum Workshop, Toowoomba, Australia.
Castro, F., and Fetcher, N. 1999. The effect of leaf clustering in the interception of light in vegetal canopies: theoretical considerations. Ecological Modelling 116: 125-134.
Ceotto, E., and Castelli, F. 2002. Radiation use efficiency in flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.): Response to nitrogen supply, climatic variability and sink limitation. Field Crops Research 74: 117-130.
Dwyer, L.M., Stewart, D.W., Hamilton, R.I., and Honwing, L. 1992. Ear position and ver-tical distribution of leaf area in corn. Agronomy Journal 84: 430-438.
Eltelib, H.A. 2004. Effect of nitrogen application on growth yield and quality of four forage sorghum cultivars. MSc Thesis University of Khartoum Sudan, Sudan.
Flenet, F., Kiniry, J., Board, J., Westage, M., and Reicosky, D.C. 1996. Row spacing effects on light extinction coefficients of corn, sorghum, soybean, and sunflower. Agronomy Journal 88: 185-190.
Gardner, F.D., Walle, R., and Mecloud, D.E. 1990. Yield characteristic of ancient race of maize compared to a modern hybrid. Agronomy Journal 82: 864-868.
Green, D.S., Erickson, J.E., and Kruger, E.L. 2003. Foliar morphology and canopy nitrogen as predictors of light use efficiency in terrestrial vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115: 163-171.
Eltelib, H.A., and Eltom, E.A. 2006. Effect of time of nitrogen application on growth, yield and quality of four forage sorghum cultivars. Agricultural Journal 1(2): 59-63.
Javadi, H., Saberi, M.H., Azari Nasr Abad, A., and Khosravi, S. 2011. Investigation of effect of rates and methods of distribution of nitrogen fertilization on characteristics of quality and quantity of sorghum var, speed feed. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 8: 384-392. (In Persian with English summery)
Kemanian, A.R., Stockle, C.O., and Huggins, D.R. 2004.Variability of barley radiation use efficiency. Crop Science 44: 1662-1672.
Lecoeur, J., and Ney, B. 2003.Change with time in potential radiation use efficiency in field pea. European Journal of Agronomy 19: 91-105.
Madoni, G.A., and Otegui, M.E. 1996. Leaf area, light interception, and crops development in maize. Field Crops Research 48: 81-87.
Monteith, J.L.1979. Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 9: 747-766.
Muchow, R.C., Sinclair, T.R., and Rennetl, I.M. 1990.Temperature and solar radiation effect on potential maize yield across location. Agronomy Journal 82: 238-243.
Novoa, R., and Loomis, R.S. 1981. Nitrogen and plant production. Plant and Soil 58: 177-204
Parsa, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Ghaemi, A. 2007. Trend absorption and radiation use efficiency in sugar beet. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 8(3): 384-392. (In Persian with English summery)
Richter, G.M., Jaggard, K.W., and Mitchell, R.A.C. 2001. Modelling radiation interception and radiation use efficiency for sugar beet under variable climatic stress. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 109: 13-25.
Rietveld, M.R. 1987. A new method for estimating the regression in the formula relating solar radiation to sunshine. Agricultural Meteorology 19: 243-252.
Rizzalli, R.H., Villalobos, F.J., and Orgaz, F. 2002. Radiation interception, radiation use efficiency and dry matter partitioning in garlic (Allium sativum L.). European Journal of Agronomy 18: 33-43.
Rooney, W.L., Blumenthal, J., Bean, B., and Mullet, J.E. 2007. Designing sorghum a dedicated bioenergy feedstock. Biofuels Products and Biorefining 1: 147-157.
Rosati, A., and Jong, T.M.D. 2003. Estimation photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves. Annals of Botany 91: 869-877.
Rosati, A., Metcalf, S.G., and Lampinen, B.D. 2004. A simple method to estimate photosynthetic radiation use efficiency of canopies. Annals of Botany 93: 567-574.
Rosenthal, W.D., Arkin, G.F., and Howell, T.A. 1985. Transmitted and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in grain sorghum. Agronomy Journal 77: 841-845.
Rosenthal, W.D., and Gerik, T.J. 1991. Radiation use efficiency among cotton cultivars. Agronomy Journal 83: 655-658.
Sinclaur, T.R., and Horie, T. 1989. Leaf nitrogen photosynthesis and crop radiation use efficiency: A review. Crop Science 29: 90-98.
Sinclaur, T.R., Shiraiwa, T., and Hammer, G.L. 1992.Variation in crop radiation use efficiency with increased diffuse radiation. Crop Science 32: 1281-1284