عنوان مقاله [English]
Shallot (Allium altisimum Regel) is a perennial plant from Alliaceae family with underground bulbs, which is considered as a by-product of the rangelands. This plant grows in natural highland habitat with cold and semi-cold climate including Khorasan and Lorestan provinces. Shallot has been used as a medicinal plant in Iranian traditional medicine. This plant is also used as aromatic and flavor. Present experiment was conducted to study domestication methods and effect of initial weight of shallot bulb and manure on yield and yield components of shallot under field conditions. It was expected that the results of present research could be an effective step in the domestication of shallot and reduce its harvesting from natural areas and habitats.
Material and Methods
This experiment was conducted on research farm of faculty of agriculture in Higher Education Complex of Shirvan, during crop season of 2013-2014. First, shallot bulbs were collected from Mashhad Taraghi village located at 30 km in South of Shirvan. After, farm preparation operations, bulbs were planted with density of 30 bulbs per square meter on Aug 21th in 2013. This experiment was conducted as factorial randomized complete block design. There were two factors including initial weight of bulb seed at four levels (15-25, 25-35, 35-45, 45-55 g.bulb-1) and cow manure at three levels (0 , 40 and 60 t.ha-1) with three replications. After collecting considered data, analysis was performed by MINITAB software and mean comparison was calculated by MSTAT-C software. EXCEL and WORD programs used to draw diagrams and tables.
Results and Discussion:
Results showed that different levels of initial weight of mother bulb and manure have significant effect (P≤0.05) on plant height, inflorescence height, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, whole plant fresh weight, bulb volume, germination percentage, leaf area and leaf number. In addition, it was indicated that increasing manure and mother bulb weight increased mentioned characteristics.
Different levels of manure and planted bulb weight had significant effect (P≤0.05) on mother and sister bulb weight and diameter and bulb and seed yield, so that the most sister bulb weight of single plant was related to planted bulbs between the range of 45-55 g and manure application by 60 t/ha for 12.81 and 8.51 g, respectively. The highest value of dry bulb weight was for planted bulbs between 45-55 g and manure application by 40 t.ha-1 for 386.2 and 88.94 g.m-2 and the lowest value of dry bulb weight was for planted bulbs between 15-25 g and control (no manure application).
It seems that bulb plantation with higher weight results in higher value in leaf area extension, production of photosynthetic materials and carbohydrates for supplying in storage parts of shallot. Several researches have confirmed the accuracy of this content. For instance, increasing the planted bulb weight causes higher leaf area extension and photosynthesis rate in red onion. Rezvan Bidokhti (2011) reported that plantation of bulbs with higher weight increased yield components of seed and dry yield of shallot bulb. Interaction effect of manure and bulb weight on production percentage of sister onion was significant at 5% level, so that the most reproduction is related to the planted bulbs between the weight range of 15-25 g and manure application by 60 ton/ha for %133 and the least reproduction is related to planted bulbs between the weight range of 45-55 g and control %33
The results of this experiment showed that with increasing weight of sowing bulbs up to 45 g.bulb-1 and applying manure up to 40 t.ha-1, dry matter was increased. It seems planting bulbs with high weight, produced more leaves so LAI was higher which caused the ability to absorb more radiation by the plant canopy.