عنوان مقاله [English]
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important agricultural product which provides the biggest fraction of food to meet human needs. Human aims to increase agricultural productions via increasing of the yield per area and application different agronomic practices like fertilizers. As a result of these activities, some issues like environmental pollution and particularly pollution of water and soil resources with some pollutants which can enter in the human food chain and threaten their health became a global concern.. Sustainable agriculture is a system that is able to improve the environmental situation with optimum use of available resources and has a great role in supplying human food demands and promoting life quality of human societies. One of the most important principles of sustainable agriculture is the application of bio- fertilizers in agroecosystems to decrease the amount of chemical compounds. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the ecological practices represents the ancient history of the symbiotic relation of the Mycorrhiza fungus with plants in most of the ecosystems. Most of the plants (about 95 percent of vascular plant species) at least can have a symbiotic relation with one of the mycorrhizal species. Reviewing the influence of glumous spp. fungus on the growth of Wheat shows the role of fungus in increasing the contents of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and calcium in plant seeds and shoot. Also Azotobacter as a bacterial biofertilizer leads to more absorption and increasing the concentration of some necessary elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, mg, Fe, and the protein content of crops.
Material and Methods
The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 agronomical year with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. In this experiment the effects of two biological fertilizers (1. Mycorrhiza in two levels of M1= inoculation and M2= no inoculation, 2. Azotobacter in tow levels of A1= inoculation and A2= no inoculation)were studied on three different Cultivars of Rain-fed wheat (V1: Sardari, V2: Kouhdasht, V3: Karim). In order to determine the N content of the seeds, the Kjeldahl methodology was used, and by multiplication of the N content of each sample in 5.83, the protein content of each sample was measured. Also P and K content of seeds were measured with spectrophotometry and flame spread (with AOAC standards) respectively.
Results and Discussion
As a result, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza had a significant effect on P content of three studied varieties of wheat in this research. The highest seed P content was measured in Azotobacter inoculated treatments (36%) that showed a 9% superiority in compare to control. Also the treatment of seed with mycorrhiza caused a 36%increasement in P content which showes 12% superiority in compare to control.In three different varieties studied in this research, the highest seed P content was related to Karim variety. The effect of Variety on seed K content was significant and the highest amount was related to Sardari variety (63%). The effects of Azotobacter, Mycorrhiza and Variety on seed N content was significant, and the highest amount of seed N was related to a1v3 (Azotobacter inoculation on Karim variety) treatment that showed 38.65% superiority in compare to the control. Also, Azotobacter*mycorrhiza*variety and Azotobacter*variety interactions on seed protein content was significant and the highest amount of seed protein percentage was related to a1v3 treatment (Azotobacter*Kraim variety) that showed 40.44% superiority in compare to control.
Positive impacts of biofertilizers was observed in most of the studied traits of wheat in this study. The biggest amount of association of Azotobacter and and symbiosis of mycorrhiza with wheat was related to Karim variety. Also application of biofertilizers increased the accumulation of organic matter in soil, increasing root development and more availability of nutrients.
In order to study, effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis an azotobacter application on qualitative traits of different wheat cultivars under dry condition of khorramabad, factorial trial was concluded in a randomized complete block design with four replication in khorramabad region during 2013- 2014 cropping season. Trial factors was including mycorrhizalnushroom (Glomous. Sp) (inoculation and non- inoculation), azotobacter (inoculation and non- inoculation) and cultivar (Sardari, Kohdasht, Karim). The results were indicated that cultivar effect on phosphor, nitrogen, potassium and seed protein was significant. Azotobacter and mycroriza simple effects on nitrogen, phosphor, and seed protein was significant. Also, Azotobacter and cultivar interaction effect on nitrogen and seed protein was significant. The highest mycoriza correlation and growth response percent was related to Karim by 21.24% and 17.52%. Overall, this study results was showed that biologic fertilizers application has played beneficial and effective role on growth and qualitative characteristic improvement of different wheat cultivars under dry conditions of khorramabad.