اثر تنش خشکی بر شاخصه‌های رشد و صفات مورفولوژیک دو اکوتیپ سیر (Allium sativum L.) در تراکم‌های کاشت متفاوت

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان

2 فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

کمبود آب یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدود‌کننده رشد و عملکرد محصولات می‌باشد. به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و تراکم کاشت بر شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک رشد و صفات مورفولوژیک دو اکوتیپ سیر (Allium sativum L.)، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای به‌صورت اسپلیت- فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ای واقع در جنوب‌شرقی شهرستان سمنان در سال زراعی 91-1390 اجرا شد. سه سطح تنش خشکی (100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی)، به عنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب سطوح فاکتوریل شامل تراکم در سه سطح ( 30، 40 و 50 بوته در متر مربع) و اکوتیپ در دو سطح طرود و طبس به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر تجمع ماده خشک، حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول و حداکثر سرعت اسیمیلاسیون خالص در شرایط 100 درصد نیاز آبی به ترتیب برابر با 537/5، 53/387 گرم در متر‌مربع، 47/10 گرم بر متر‌مربع در روز و 92/4 گرم بر متر‌مربع برگ در روز بود که این مقادیر با اعمال تنش خشکی در تیمار 80 درصد نیاز آبی به ترتیب به‌طور معنی‌داری به مقادیر 745/3، 60/262 گرم در متر‌مربع، 31/6 گرم بر متر‌مربع در روز و 71/3 گرم بر متر‌مربع برگ در روز کاهش یافت. حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول در اکوتیپ طرود بیشتر از اکوتیپ طبس بود اما تعداد برگ و حداکثر تجمع ماده خشک در اکوتیپ طبس بالاتر بود. با اعمال و تشدید تنش خشکی، ارتفاع بوته در اکوتیپ طرود به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت، اما اعمال و تشدید تنش، در ارتفاع اکوتیپ طبس تأثیر معنی‌داری نداشت. حداکثر سرعت رشد نسبی در اکوتیپ طبس در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی تفاوتی نشان نداد، اما در اکوتیپ طرود با افزایش تنش در آبیاری 60 درصد نیاز آبی، افزایش معنی‌داری در این ویژگی مشاهده شد. اثر تراکم کاشت بر حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر تجمع ماده خشک، حداکثر سرعت اسیمیلاسیون خالص معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین مقدار حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ (017/5) و حداکثر تجمع ماده خشک (57/358 گرم در مترمربع) از تراکم 50 بوته در متر‌مربع حاصل گردید. اعمال تنش خشکی، حتی در سطح خفیف‌تر آن و در مقدار آبیاری 80 درصد نیاز آبی، سبب کاهش بخشی از ویژگی‌های رشدی مورد ارزیابی گیاه سیر گردید و در مجموع ویژگی‌های رشدی دو اکوتیپ در شرایط تنش بر دیگری برتری چشمگیری نداشت. تراکم کاشت بالاتر به سبب حضور سطح فعال فتوسنتز کننده بیشتر در واحد سطح، سبب افزایش تجمع ماده خشک در واحد سطح گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

نویسندگان [English]

  • shiva akbari 1
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Shahram Rezvan Beidokhti 1
1 Azad Islamic university, Damghan branch
2 Ferdowsi University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits.
Materials and methods
This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2) and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T). To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and underground organs and leaf area from measured samples of treatments were used.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest value of maximum leaf area index (LAI), maximum total dry matter accumulation (TDM), maximum crop growth rate (CGR) and maximum of net assimilation rate (NAR) were observed at 100% ETc with the value of 5.537, 387.53 gr.m-2, 10.47 gr m-2day-1 and 4.92 gr.m-2leaf.day-1 respectively; and by applying the irrigation treatment of 80% ETc these values decreased to 3.745, 262.60 gr.m-2, 6.31 gr.m-2day-1 and 3.71 gr.m-2leaf.day-1 respectively. Drought stress can decrease cell development and division and plant photosynthesis, and thus, it can decrease leaf area index and consequently decrease light absorption, photosynthetic area, dry matter and crop growth rate. Difference between ecotypes in terms of number of leaves, maximum total dry matter accumulation and maximum crop growth rate was significant. Maximum crop growth rate (CGR) in Toroud ecotype was higher than Tabas ecotype but number of leaves and maximum concentration of total dry matter (TDM) in Tabas ecotype were higher than corresponding values in Toruod ecotype. The effect of planting density on maximum leaf area index (LAI), maximum total dry matter (TDM) and maximum net assimilation rate (NAR) was significant. The highest value of maximum leaf area index (5.017) and maximum total dry matter (358.57 g.m-2) concentration were obtained from 50 plant.m-2 density. The highest value of maximum net assimilation rate (4.61) was obtained from 30 plant.m-2 density. It could be because of having leaves exposed to more light and less shading.
Conclusion
Applying drought stress at the irrigation treatment of 80% ETc decreased studied growth characteristics of garlic. Therefore, it is recommended that garlic should be avoided from facing drought stress and its water requirement must be met as much as possible. In general, under drought stress, two studied ecotypes did not have any preference related to the studied growth characteristics. Higher planting density, due to higher active photosynthetic area over unit area, increased the dry matter in unit area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop Growth Rate
  • Dry matter
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Plant height
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