بررسی اثر کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ خوراکی (SMC) و مایکوریزا بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سیر (Allium sativum L.) در یک نظام زراعی کم ‌نهاده

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

استفاده از کودهای آلی و بیولوژیکی از راهکارهای مهم کاهش اثرات زیان‌بار کودهای شیمیایی در مدیریت پایدار بوم‌نظام-های کشاورزی محسوب می‌شوند. به منظور بررسی اثر کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ خوراکی (SMC) و مایکوریزا بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سیر (Allium sativum L.) آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه‌ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 89-1388 اجرا شد. مایکوریزا (کاربرد و عدم-کاربرد) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و کاربرد سطوح مختلف کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ (سطوح 0، 20، 40، 60، 80 و100 تن در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل‌ فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که اثر سطوح مختلف کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ بر اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود، این در حالی است که میکوریزا اثر چندانی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سیر نداشت. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش، بیشترین قطر و طول سوخ و تعداد سوخک در بوته در تیمار 100 تن در هکتار کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ مشاهده شد. بیشترین عملکرد اقتصادی با 12760 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تیمار 100 تن SMC در هکتار مشاهده شد، به‌طوری‌که با کاربرد 100 تن در هکتار SMC عملکرد اقتصادی در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد 48 درصد افزایش یافت. بیشترین ماده خشک تولیدی و شاخص برداشت نیز در تیمار 100 تن در هکتار کمپوست بقایای بستر قارچ مشاهده شد. به‌طور‌کلی می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که کاربرد SMC خصوصیات کمی و کیفی آن را بهبود می‌بخشد و در نتیجه می‌تواند به عنوان جایگزینی مناسب برای کودهای شیمیایی مطرح شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Spent Mushroom Compost and Mycorrhiza on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in the Low Input Cropping System

نویسندگان [English]

  • P rezvani moghaddam
  • H.R Ehyaee
  • M.B Amiri
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In recent years, the effect of exogenous organic amendments on soil properties and plant growth characteristics has received renewed attention. Although the utilization of mineral fertilizers could be viewed as the best solution in terms of plant productivity, this approach is often inefficient in the long-term in tropical ecosystems due to the limited ability of low-activity clay soils to retain nutrients. Intensive use of agrochemicals in agricultural systems is also known to have irreversible effects on soil and water resources.
The use of organic and biological fertilizers are important strategies to reduce harmful effects of chemical fertilizers in sustainable management of agroecosystems.
Spent mushroom compost is the residual compost waste generated by the mushroom production industry. It is readily available and its formulation generally consists of a combination of wheat straw, dried blood, horse manure and ground chalk, composted together. It is an excellent source of humus, although much of its nitrogen content will have been used up by the composting and growing mushrooms. It remains, however, a good source of general nutrients, as well as a useful soil conditioner.
Most mineral soils contain mycorrhizal fungi, but often at levels that are too low for adequate colonization, especially in disturbed soils. Mycorrhizae are host specific and will only colonize certain plants; so in some soils, there are no native mycorrhizae that will benefit these plants. Therefore, most plants would benefit from mycorrhizae addition to the soil. Symbiosis begins when fungal spores germinate and emerging thread linke structures, called hyphae, enters the epidermis of plant roots. After colonization of the root, the fungus sends out a vast network of hyphae throughout the soil to form a greatly enhanced absorptive surface area. This results in improved nutrient acquisition and uptake by plant roots, particularly elemental phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper and water. In return, the plant provides carbohydrates for the fungi.

Materials and methods
In order to study the effect of mushroom compost and mycorrhiza on yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.), a split plot experiment based on RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2010-11 growing season in research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae) (use and non-use) and spent mushroom compost levels (SMC) (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 t ha-1) were considered as the main and sub factors. In order to determine the physic-chemical properties of soil, sampling was done at a depth of 0 to 30 cm. Distance on and between rows was considered 10 and 20 cm, respectively. In order to weeds control, manual weeding was done three times. At the end of the growing season, economic yield, biological yield, plant height, shoot dry weight, bulb diameter, bulblet weight per plant, bulblet volume per plant and bulblet number per plant were measured. Analysis of variance was done with SAS Ver 9.1 software.

Result and discussion
The results showed that the effect of different levels of mushroom compost was significant on the most studied traits, but mycorrhiza had no significant effect on yield and yield components of garlic. Based on the results, highest diameter and length of the bulb and bulblets were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC. The highest economic yield (12760 kg ha-1) was observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC, so that the application of SMC increased economic yield by 48 percent compared to control. The highest dry matter production and harvest index also were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC.
Organic and biological fertilizers are among the most significant resources for development of agricultural soil quality and increase in the yield of different medicinal plants. It has been reported that this ecological inputs provide favorable conditions for plant growth and development through improvement of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil (Cabrera et al., 2009), therefore, it can be concluded that improvement of the most studied traits in the present study were due to use of organic fertilizers.
Conclusions
In general, the results showed that it seems use of SMC can improve quantitative and qualitative characteristics of garlic, thus it can be considered as a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulb
  • Economic yield
  • fertility
  • Medicinal plants
  • Sustainable Management
Agarwal, K.C. 1996. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Medicinal Research Reviews 16: 111-124.
Cabrera, V.E., Stavast, L.J., Baker, T.T., Wood, M.K., Cram, D.S., Flynn, R.P., and Ulery, A.L. 2009. Soil and runoff response to dairy manure application on New Mexico rangeland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 131: 255-262.
Ehyaee, H.R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Gaemi, M., and Motamedi, M.R. 2010. Investigation of the effects of spent mushroom compost (SMC) application on wheat. The First National Symposium on Agriculture and Sustainable Development Opportunities and Future Challenge. (In Persian with English Summary)
FAOSTAT. 2013. Food and agriculture organization of United nations (FAO) statistical databases.
FAO. 2009. FAO statistical databases. Available online at http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.
Jordan, S.N., Mullen, G.J., and Courtney, R.G. 2008. Utilization of spent mushroom compost for the revegetation of lead–zinc tailings: Effects on physico-chemical properties of tailings and growth of Lolium perenne. Bioresource Technology 99: 8125-8129.
Lampkin, N. 1990. Organic Farming. Farming Press Bookes. Ipswich, Great Britain; distributed in North America by Diamond Farm Enterprises, Alexandria Bay, New York.
Lankinen, P., Hilden, K., Aro, N., Salkinoja‌-Salonen, M., and Hattakka, A. 2004. Manganese peroxidase of Agaricus bisporus: grain bran-promoted production and gene characterization. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnolegy 66: 401-407.
Lohr, V.I., Wang, S.H.I., and Wolt, J.D. 1984. Physical and chemical characteristics of fresh and aged spent mushroom compost. HortScience 19: 681-683.
Mayeux, P.R. Malakoti, M.G. 1996. Sustainabl agriculture and incrase yeild with optimization of apply fertlizer in Iran. Publication Nashr Amozesh, Agrawal, K.C., Tou, J.S.H., King, B.T., Lippton, H.L., Hyman, A.L., Kadowiz, P.J., and McNamara, D.B. 1998. The pharmacological effects of allicin, a constituent of garlic oil. Agents and Actions 25: 182-90.
Maynard, A. 1998. Utilization of MSW compost in nursery stock production. Compost Science 6: 38.
Medina, E., Paredes, C., Perez-Murcia, M.D., Bustamante, M.A., and Moral, R. 2009. Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants. Bioresource Technology 100: 4227-4232.
Mukerji, K.G., and Chamola, B.P. 2003. Compendium of Mycorrhizal Research/edited New Delhi, A.P.H., 2: 645-632.
Okon, Y., and Labandera-Gonzales, C.A. 1994. Agronomic application of Azospirillium: an evaluation of 20 years worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1591-1601.
Pathak, V.N., Yada, N., and Maneesha, G. 1998. Mushroom Production and Processing Tecnology. Agronomy Botanica, India. 179 pp.
Peregrina, F., Larrieta, C., Martin, I., Martinez-Vidaurre, J.M., and Garcia-Escudero, E. 2009. Effect of application spent mushroom compost as organic amendment in vineyard soil of the Origin Denomination Rioja (Spain). Geophysical Research Abstracts 11: 365-368.
Peter, J. 2001. Compost Utilization in Horticultural Cropping System. CRC Press. U.S.A.
Polat, E., Uzun, I., Topçuolu, B., Onal, K., Onus, A.N., and Karaca, M. 2009. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 176-180.
Rahmanian, M., Hatami, F., Esmaeel poor, B., and Hadian, J. 2011. Effect of spent mashroom compost on yeild and yeild components of Satureja hortensis. National Conference on Modern Agricultural Sciences and Technologies (MAST). (In Persian)
Rezaian, S., and Paseban, M. 2007. The effect of micronutrients and manure fertilizers on the quantity and quality of Khorasan saffron. The Second International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, April. (In Persian)
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Amiri, M.B., and Ehyaee, H.R. 2013. Effect of different levels of biological fertilizers and mushroom compost on flower yield and characteristics of saffron corms (Crocus sativus L.) in an organic farming system. Journal of Agroecology (In Press). (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezvani Moghaddam P., Mohammadabadi A.A., and Sabori A. 2007. Effect of different animal manure on flower yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forage production of saffron (Crocus sativus) in Mashhad condition. Second International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, April. (In Persian)
Seyedi, M., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2011. Evaluation of yeild, yeild components and nitrogen use efficiency in application of mashroom compost, biofertilizer and urea in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agroecology 3: 309-319. (In Persian with English Summary).
Singer, J.W., Kohler, K.A., Liebman, M., Richard, T.L., Cambardella, C.A., and Buhler, D.D. 2004. Tillage and compost affect yield of corn, soybean, and wheat and soil fertility. Agronomy Journal 96: 531-537.
Stewart, D.P.C., Cameron, K.C., and Cornforth, I.S. 1997. Inorganic-N realease from spent mushroom compost under laboratory and field conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 13: 1689-1698.
Ozguven, A.I. 1998. The opportunities of using mushroom compost waste in Strawberry growing. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 22: 601-607.
Uzun, I. 2004. Use spent mushroom compost in sustainable fruit production. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 12: 157-165.
Vakili Shahrbabaki, M.A. 2009. Khow Medicnal and Aromatic Plant. Publication of Azad Eslami University. (In Persian)
Varma, A., and Hock, B. 1999. Mycoriza: Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Springer microbiology book. Berlin, pp. 1-132.
Velisek, J., Kubec, R., and Davidek, J. 1997. Chemical composition and classification of culinary and pharmaceutical garlic- based products. Z Lebensem Unters Forsch 204: 161-164.
Velusami, B., Grogan1, H, Curran, T.P., and McGuiness, B. 2007. Dynamics of hydrogen sulphide gas production in spent mushroom compost during storage and handling and its impact on Health and Safety issues. School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
Wisniewska, G.H., and Pankiewicz, T. 1989. Evaluation of the suitability of spent mushroom substrate for tulip cultivation. Prace Instytutu Sadownictura Kwiaciarstwaw Skerniewicack 14: 7-13.
Yaghtin, S.H.A., Ardalan, M., and Alikhani, H. 2010. Effect of compost and vermin compost on the growth and attract nutrient in corn. Journal of Water and Soil 1: 35-43.
Zhou, D.M., Hao, X.Z., Wang, Y.J., Dong, Y.H., and Cang, L. 2005. Copper and Zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures. Chemosphere 59: 167-175.