پراکنش گیاه هرز علف پشمکی (Bromus tectorum L.) و سایر گیاهان هرز مهم هم خانواده آن در مزارع گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) غرب و شمال شرق ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

علف‌پشمکی (Bromus tectorum L.) یکی از مهمترین گیاهان هرز مشکل ساز به ویژه در مزارع گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) و جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) زمستانه به شمار می‌رود. از این‌رو، وضعیت پراکنش این گیاه هرز به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی در 40 مزرعه از مزارع گندم آبی شهرستان خرم‌آباد، 27 مزرعه در مشهد و 28 مزرعه در نیشابور در سال 1391 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای مربوط به فراوانی نسبی، غنای گونه‌ای، تراکم و یکنواختی نسبی و نیز شاخص‌های تنوع و غالبیت اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین با استفاده از تکنیک GIS، نقشه پراکنش علف پشمکی در این مناطق رسم شد. علاوه بر علف پشمکی 16 گونه علف‌هرز دیگر از خانواده گندمیان مشاهده شد. فراوانی نسبی علف پشمکی اکوتیپ hirsotum در خرم‌آباد با 76/8 درصد بیشتر از اکوتیپ tectorum با فراوانی 76/4 درصد بود. یولاف وحشی زمستانه(Avena ludoviciana L.) با 56/19 و پس از آن جو دره (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) با 52/13 درصد فراوانی نسبی از میانگین پنج نمونه‌گیری در هر مزرعه بیشترین فراوانی را به خود اختصاص دادند. در مزارع مشهد فراوانی نسبی علف‌پشمکی اکوتیپ tectorum با44/12 درصد بیشتر از اکوتیپ hirsotum با فراوانی نسبی 25/7 درصد بود. یولاف بهاره با 99/13 درصد فراوانی و پس از آن جو دره با 95/12 درصد دارای بیشترین فراوانی نسبی بودند. در مزارع گندم نیشابور فراوانی نسبی دو اکوتیپ علف پشمکی مشابه (75/10) بود. یولاف وحشی بهاره (Avena fatua L.) با 52/14 درصد فراوانی و چاودار (Secale cereale L.) با 29/11 درصد فراوانی بیشترین فراوانی را داشتند. در این بین، قیاق (Sorghum halepense L.) و پنجه‌مرغی (Cynodon dactylon L.) چندساله بوده و مابقی یک‌ساله بودند. علاوه بر آن بر اساس مشاهدات اینگونه استنباط می‌شود که ارتفاع از سطح دریا تأثیر چندانی در تراکم اکوتیپ‌های علف‌پشمکی و سایر گیاهان هرز گرامینه نداشته است. مقدار شاخص تنوع شانون-وِینر در خرم‌آباد به میزان 24/2، در مشهد 16/2 و در نیشابور 29/2، شاخص تنوع سیمپسون خرم‌آباد 04/1، در مشهد 31/1 و در نیشابور 16/1 و شاخص غالبیت سیمپسون مزارع گندم خرم‌آباد 960/0، مشهد 764/0 و در نیشابور 862/0محاسبه شد. تفاوت در شاخص‌های تنوع گونه‌ای و غالبیت احتمالاً با میزان و نوع عملیات مدیریتی در مزارع مورد پایش ارتباط دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Distribution of Cheat Grass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Other Poaceae Weeds in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Farms in West and Northeast of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Zeidali
  • Reza Ghorbani
  • Mahdi parsa
  • Ghorbanali Assadi
University of Ilam
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Undoubtedly, planning and providing appropriate management strategies for weed management requires accurate understanding of plant growth. In fact, by identifying plant growth flora and determining the abundance and distribution of weed species, we can obtain important background information for designing weed management plans. Usually the composition and density of weed flora reflect the system of production and agronomic operations. In fact, by identifying the weed flora and determining the abundance and distribution of weed species, we can provide important background information for designing weed management plans. In this case, Cheat grass is problematic weed in winter crops like wheat and barley.
Material and Methods
The distribution of this weed as random sampling method in 2012 was surveyed in 40 irrigated wheat farms in Khorramabad, 27 farms in Mashhad and 28 farms in Neyshaboor. Factors related to relative abundance, species richness, density and relative uniformity as well as variability and dominance indices were measured. Sampling in each farm was a W pattern. At almost all fields monitored, sampling was done in the post-stemming phase of the wheat before filling the seeds. Also, using the GIS technique, the distribution map of grass plots was drawn in these areas.
Results and Discussion
Results showed that sixteen weed species from poaceae family other than cheat grass were observed. Relative frequency of hirsotum ecotype of cheat grass (with 8.76%) was higher than tectorum ecotypes (with 4.76%) in Khorramabad. The Animated animated oat with 19.65% and then Wild barley with 13.52% in mean of 5 samples had the highest relative frequency. In Mashhad relative frequency of tectorum ecotype with 12.44% was higher than of hirsotum ecotype with 7.25%. Common wild oat with 13.99 and then Wild barley with 12.95% had the highest frequency. In wheat farms of Neyshaboor, two ecotypes had similar relative frequency with 10.75%. Common wild oat with 14.52 and then Secale with 12.29% had the highest frequency. In this case only Johnson grass and Bermuda grass were perennial and other weed species were annual. The properties of annual plants are capable of retrieval and rapid reproduction after the destruction occurring in the environment. Therefore, the abundance of more than one year in agricultural lands that are associated with continuous degradation is not unexpected. Additionally, most of the crops are annual, and it is normal that annual crop rotations that have the same growing needs as a crop are more abundant than perennial weeds Similar results were also obtained in thi sstudy. Furthermore, it was shown that the latitude had no large effect on density of grasses and cheat grass ecotypes. Shannon-Weiner diversity index in Khorramabad 2.24, in Mashhad 2.16, in Neyshaboor 2.29, Simpson's diversity index 1.04, in Mashhad 1.31 and in Neyshabour 1.16 and Simpson dominance index in khorramabad 0.960, in Mashhad 0.764 and in neyshaboor 0.862 was calculated. Also using GIS techniques distribution map of cheat grass were drawn in these areas.
Conclusion
The characteristics of annual plants such as grasshopper can be recovered and are capable of rapid replication after the destruction occurring in the environment. Therefore, the abundance of more than one year in agricultural lands that are associated with continuous degradation is not unexpected. In addition to theaccording to the findings of this research, the difference in the indices of species diversity and dominance were associated with the level and type of management practices on farms.
In general, farms with a higher diversity can be said to be managed with weaker management practices that minimize the use of agricultural machinery and the inadequacy of chemical inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diversity
  • Distribution map
  • Grasses
  • Uniformity
  • Weed
Ahmadi, A.R. 2011. Weed floristic composition and chemical weed management of lentil (Lens culinaris) farms in Khorramabad. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ale- ebrahim, M.T. 2008. Spring study of biodiversity and density of weed flora Sabzevar orchards. In: 2nd Iranian Weed Science Congress. January 29-30, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summery).
Altieri, M.A. 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19-31.
Anderson, R.L. and Beck, D.L. 2007. Characterizing weed communities among various rotations in central South Dakota. Weed Technology 21: 76-79.
Anonumous. 2013. Latitude and longitude of Iranian ctities. Avalible in Website: http://www.noojum.com/other/astronomy-tools/187-online-tools/6266-longitude-latitude.html
Arun Kumar, S., Bhattacharya, M., Sarkar B., and Arunachalam, V. 2007. Weed floristic composition in plam gardens in Plains of Eastern Himalayan region of West Bengal. Current Science 92: 1434-1439.
Bazoobandi, M., Sadrabadi Haghighi, R., and Beheshtiyan Mesgaran, M. 2007. Weeds ecology in agricultural and natural system. Sukhan Gostar pubication and Research Department of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Dutoit, T., Gerbaud, E., Buisson, E., and Roche, P. 2003. Dynamics of a weed community in a cereal field created after ploughing a seminatural meadow: Roles of the permanent seed bank. Ecoscience 10: 225-235.
Dezfooli, M.A. 1997. Grass Weeds in Iran. Center of University Press. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Edim, H., Sarani, M., and Minbashi Moeini, M. 2010. Determining Weed Maps and population characteristics of Irrigated Wheat Fields for Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Weed Research 2(1): 1-14. (In Persian with English Summery)
Fround–Williams, R.J. 1988. Changes in weed flora with different tillage and agronomic managmentn in systems pp: 213-236, in M.A. Altieri and M. Liebman, Eds. Weed managment in Agroecosystems. Ecological Approaches. Boca Raton, Florida- United States, CRC Press.
Hardegree, S.P., Moffet, C.A., Roundy, B.A., Jones, T.A., Novak, S.J., Clark, P.E., Pierson, F.B., and Flerchinger, G.N. 2010. A comparison of cumulative-germination response of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and five perennial bunchgrass species to simulated field-temperature regimes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 69: 320-327.
Hunter, R. 1991. Bromus invasions on the Nevada Test Site: present status of Bromus rubens and Bromus tectorum with notes on their relationship to disturbance and altitude. The Great Basin Naturalist 51(2): 176-182.
Hyvonen, T., Ketoja, E., Salonen, J., Jalli, H., and Tiainen, J. 2003. Weed species diversity and community composition in organic and conventional cropping of spring cereals. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 97: 131-149.
Izsak, I., and Papp, L. 2000. A link between ecological diversity indices and measures of biodiversity. Ecological Modeling 130: 151-156.
Jahani Kondori, M., Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mahalati, M., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2012. Investigation of species diversity of weeds in wheat fields of eastern region of Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 10(3): 468-476. (In Persian with English Summery)
Keshavarz, K., Minbashi, M., and Saidi, K. 2008. Distribution and determination of dominant weed species in cereal fields of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province using GIS. In 2nd Iranian Weed Science Congress. January 29-30, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summery)
Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Tabriza, L., Azizi, G., and Jahan, M. 2006. Assessment of species diversity, function and structure of weed communities. wheat and sugar beet farms in different provinces in Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 4(1): 105-129. (In Persian with English Summery)
Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Zare feizabadi, A., and Jahanbin, M. 2004. Assessment of crop diversity systems. Research and Development 17(2): 70-83. (In Persian with English Summery)
Lass, L.W. and Callhan, R.H. 1993. GPS and GIS for weed survey and management. Weed Technology 7: 249-254.
Lavorel, S., Mcintyer, S., Landsberg, J., and Forbes, T.D.A. 1997. Plant functional classification: from general groups based on response to disturbance. Trend in Ecology and Evolution 12: 474- 478.
Legere, A., and Derksen, D.A. 2000. Weed community diversity and cropping systems: concepts and applications. Third International Weed Science Congress. Foz do Iguassu, Brazil 2000 June 6 –11.
Lemerle, D., Gill, G.S., Murphy, C.E., Walker, S.R., Cousens, R.D., Mokhtari, S., Peltzer, S., Coleman, R., and Luckett, D.J. 2001. Genetic improvement and agronomy for enhanced wheat competitiveness with weeds. Australian Journal of Agricalture Research 52: 527– 548.
Lososova, Z., Chytry, M., and Kuhn, I. 2008. Plant attributes determining the regional abundance of weeds on central European arable land. Journal of Biogeography 35: 177–187.
Menalled, F., Mangold, J., and Davis, E. 2008. Cheatgrass: Identification, Biology and integrated management. www.msuextention.org
Meng, E.C., Smale, M., Rozella, S., Ruifa, H., and Huang, J. 1999. The cost of wheat diversity in China. American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting. Nashville, Tennessee.
Minbashi Moeini, M., Baghestani, M.A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., and Alifard, M. 2009. Distribution of weeds in irrigated wheat farms in Tehran province using
geographic information system (GIS). Weed Science 4: 97-118. (In Persian with English Summery)
Minbashi Moeini, M., Ebtali, Y., Esfandiari, H., Edim, H., Barjesteh, A.R., Poorazar, R., Jahedi, A., Jafarzadeh, N., Jamali, M.R., Hosseini, M., Sarani, M., Sarihi, S., Sabahi, N., Sabahi Ardekani, A., Tabatabaee, R., Ghasemi, M.T., Lak, M.R., Moosavi, K., Makenali, A., Saeedi Naeeni, F., Mirvakili, M., Nazer Kakhki, H., Narimani, V., Nowrooz zadeh, Sh., Veisi, M., and Yoones Abadi, M. 2012. Mapping the distribution of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Iran using Geographic Information System (GIS). Agronomy Journal-Research and Development 95: 22-31. (In Persian with English Summery)
Mitchell, K.M., and Pike, D.R. 1996. Using a geographic information system (GIS) for herbicide management. Weed Technology 10: 856-864.
Mohamadvand, A., Rashed mohasel, M.H., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Poor Tusi, N. 2009. Study on infestation levels and spatial distributions of Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum in corn field. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6: 419-432. (In Persian with English Summery)
Naeem, S., and Li, S. 1995. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability. Nature 390: 505-509.
Noroz Zadeh, S., Rashed Mohasel, M.H., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., and AbbasPour, M. 2008. Evaluation of species, functional and structural diversity of weeds in wheat fields of Northern, Southern and Razavi Khorasan provinces. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6(2): 471-485.
Oldfield, M.L., and Alcorn, J.B. 1987. Conservation of traditional agroecosystems. Bioscience 37: 199-208.
Poggio, S.L. 2005. Structure of weed communities occurring in monoculture and intercropping of field pea and barley. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 109: 48-58.
Radosevich, S., Holt, J., and Ghersa, C. 1997. Weed Ecology: Implications for Management. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, NewYork.
Rajendra, P.S., Schmidt, D., and Gnanavelrajah, N. 2010. Relating plant diversity to biomass and soil erosion in a cultivated landscape of the eastern seaboard region of Thailand. Applied Geography 6: 1-12.
Rassam, G.A., Latifi, N., Soltani, A., and Kamkar, B. 2010. Effect of agronomic factors and soil characteristics on the diversity and composition of weed communities in wheat farms (Triticum aestivum L.) in Jajarm. Journal of Agroecology 2(2): 343-352. (In Persian with English Summery)
Salonen, J. 1993. Weed infestation and factors effecting weed incidence in Spring Cereals in Finland – A Multivariate Approach. Agricultural Science in Finland 2: 525-536.
Santiago, L.P., Satorre, E.H., and Dela-Fuente, E. 2004. Structure of weed communities occurring in pea and wheat crops in the Rolling Pampa agriculture. Ecosystems and Envoronment 103: 225-235.
Sharifi Niarag, J. 1995. Assessment of grassland diversity in Ardabil. Research and Development 33: 26-31. (In Persian with English Summery)
Souri, N., Amiri, S., Zeidali, E., Azadbakht, N., Shekaryan Moghadam, B., and Souri, F. 2008. Density and distribution of weeds in irrigated wheat field in Lurestan province. 10th Iranian Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, August 17, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian with English Summery)
Storkey, J., and Westbury, D.B. 2007. Mini-review: Managing arable weeds for biodiversity. Pest Management. Science 63: 517-523.
Thomas, A.G. 1985. Weed survey system used in Saskatchevan for cereal and oilseed crops. Weed Science 33: 34-43.
Upadhyaya, M.K., Turkington, R., and McIlvride, D. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 75. Bromus tectorum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 66: 689-709.