اثر تراکم بنه و نوع بستر کاشت بر اجزای عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تراکم بنه و نوع بستر کاشت بر خصوصیات زایشی، اجزای عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی به‌صورت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار در پارک علم و فناوری خراسان رضوی در سال زراعی90-1389 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تراکم بنه در سه سطح 50، 100 و 150 بنه در متر‌مربع و پنج بستر کاشت شامل 10 تن کمپوست زباله شهری در هکتار، 30 تن کود گاوی پوسیده در هکتار، 20 تن ضایعات بستر قارچ در هکتار، 10 تن خاکپوش کلش گندم (Triticum astivum L.) در هکتار و شاهد بودندکه همزمان با کاشت بنه زعفران اعمال گردید. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد گل، وزن گل تر و خشک، وزن کلاله تر و خشک، وزن خامه تر و خشک زعفران بودند. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح تراکم بنه و بسترهای مختلف کاشت اثر معنی‌داری بر عملکرد خامه و کلاله خشک زعفران داشت (01/0p≤). افزایش تعداد بنه از 50 به150 بنه در متر‌مربع، وزن تر گل زعفران را 177 و وزن خشک کلاله را 155 درصد (حدود 5/2 برابر) بهبود بخشید. بیشترین وزن تر و خشک کلاله+خامه در تیمار کاربرد خاکپوش کلش گندم به ترتیب به میزان 43/14 و 59/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین آن در شاهد به ترتیب برابر با 31/4 و 81/0 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد. اثر متقابل بین تراکم بنه و نوع بستر کاشت در هیچ‌یک از صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار نبود. با توجه به نتایج چنین به نظر می‌رسد که به منظور بهبود تولید گل و کلاله زعفران در سال اول، تراکم 150 بنه در متر‌مربع و بستر کشت خاکپوش کلش گندم را می‌توان توصیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Different Corm Densities and Bed Types on Flower Yield Components of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Mollafilabi
  • A. Koocheki
  • P Rezvani Moghaddam
  • M Nassiri Mahallati
Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST)
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Saffron is among the most precious agricultural and medicinal plants of the world and has a specific placement in Iran exports. In Iran total cultivation area was 93000 ha in 2017 that from which about 96% devoted to two main provinces of saffron production including Khorasan-Razavi and South Khorasan with total production of 351 ton saffron. Saffron has unique characters including low water requirement, saffron irrigation in times that other crops do not need, farm utilization for some years, ease of transportation, lack of need to special machinery and complex technology, high capacity to use labor in time of picking flowers, occupation and in the end prevention from immigration and exchange income that make this crop becomes superior in those regions that lack of industrial perspectives and having water limitations. Organic fertilizers have effective role in saffron production including physical improvement of saffron soil, temperature relief, penetration improvement, porosity increase, and soil reducdtion in hardiness, and cause to saffron flowering. Several factors like climate, diseases, irrigation, storage, planting date, chemical and biological fertilizers and animal manure are very effective in saffron quantity and quality. Saffron yield depends on several factors like soil, crop density, planting method, corm size, geographical location, climatic factors like temperature fluctuations specially in time of flowering, rate of rainfall, cultural management and utilization period. The aim of this study was to determine possible effects of corm density and bed type on flower yield components and stigma yield of saffron.
Materials and methods
In order to evaluate effects of corm density and bed type on reproductive characters, yield components of flower and saffron stigma an experiment was conducted in the form of factorial as RCBD with three replicates at the research farm of Khorasan Science and Technology Part (KSTP) during growing season of 2010-2011.The treatments under study were density with three levels of 50,100,150 corms per m2 and five bed types of 10 t.ha urban compost, 30 t.ha decayed cow manure, 20 t.ha mushroom bed residues,10 t.ha wheat straw, and control that were applied in planting time. Traits measured were number of flowers, fresh and dry weight of flowers, fresh and dry weight of stigma, fresh and dry weight of style of saffron. Statistical analysis of the first year of data was done with SAS software and mean comparisons were as DUNCAN multiple range test at 5% level with MSTAT-C.
Results and discussion
Results showed that corm density had significant effect on all traits under study at p≤0.01 but effect of bed type was only insignificant on number of flowers .m-2 and in other traits were significant at p≤0.01. Increasing corm density from 50 to 150 corms.m-2 increased flower number from 16.8 to 46.8 . m-2 (about 179%) and fresh weight by 177 and stigma dry weight by 155%.The highest fresh and dry weight of stigma + style were found in wheat straw that were 14.43 and 2.59 kg.ha, respectively. Interaction between corm density and bed type was not significant in all traits under study.Variation of flower number .m-2 had high correlation with corm density.m-2 that shows trend of increasing flower number due to increasing corm number.
Conclusion
Therefore, it is concluded that for production of more flowers and dry weight of stigma in the first year corm density of 150 corms.m-2 and bed type of wheat straw is recommended.Saffron yield in the first year of cultivation is not economical and it seems that by using high density planting it almost compensates for low yield at the first year.Recently, farmers are willing to apply high corms for planting saffron farms. Saffron is an organic crop and preparing beds with organic fertilizers specially wheat straw due to its improvement of environmental conditions have positive effect in saffron yield and environmental improvement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry stigma yield
  • Flower number
  • Organic matter
Ait-aubahou, A., and El-otmani, M. 1999. Saffron-cultivation in Morocco, in: ‘Saffron’ (M. Negbi, Ed.) Harwood Academic Publication. Amsterdam 154 pp.
Alidadi, H., Saffari, A.R., and Peiravi, R. 2013. Effect of biofertilizers compost, vermicompost and sulfur compost on yield of Saffron. Word Applied Sciences Journal 21(9): 1386-1390.
Amirghasemi, T. 2001. Saffron, Red Gold of Iran. Nashr- Ayandegan Publication, Tehran, Iran, 112 pp. (In Persian)
Amiri, M.E. 2008. Impact of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 4: 274-279.
Available at Web site http://www.Civilica.com/paper-CEE01-228.html.
Baiburdi, A., and Kalantari Oskouei, A. 2007. Effect of municipal solid waste compost, vermicompost and manure on onion crop. 1st Conference of Environmental Engineering. Tehran, Tehran University, Department of Environment, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Bastian, F., Bouziro, L., Nicolardot, B., and Ranjard, L. 2009. Impact of wheat straw decomposition on successional patterns of soil microbial community structure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 262-275.
Behdani, M.A., Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2006. Evaluation of quantitative relationships between saffron yield and nutrition (on farm trial). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 3: 1-14. (In Persian with English Summary)
Chen, S.Y., Zhang, X.Y., Pei, D., and Sun, H. 2005 Effects of corm straw mulching on soil temperature and soil evaporation of winter field. Transaction of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 21: 171-173.
Chen, S.Y., Zhang, X.Y., Pei, D., Sun, H.Y., and Chen, S.L. 2007. Effects of straw mulching on soil temperature, evaporation and yield of winter wheat: Field experiments on the North China Plain. Annals of Applied Biology 150: 261–268.
Danga, B.O., and Wakindiki, I.I.C. 2009. Effect of placement of straw mulch on soil conservation, nutrient accumulation, and wheat yield in a humid Kenyan highland. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 47: 261-268.
Forogifar, H., and Porkasemani, M.A. 2001. Science and Soil Management (Vol. I) Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Ghalavand, A., and Abdollahian Noghabi, M. 2004. Effect of ecological adaption and study of row spacing and planting method on land races yield of Iranian Saffron. 2nd National Symposium of Saffron Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran. (In Persian)
Habibi, M.B., and Bagheri Kazemabad, A. 1988. Saffron (Agronomy. Process, Chemical, Composition and its Standards). Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian)
Hemmati Kakhki, A., and Hosseini, M. 2003. A Review on Saffron Researches in Institute of Research for Developing Technology, Khorasan. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Jahan, M., and Jahani, M. 2007. The effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on saffron flowering. Acta Horticulturae 739: 81-86.
Jihad Keshavarzi Khorasan Razavi. 2012. Report on agronomic research for saffron. (On Published)
Kafi, M., Rashed Mohassel, M., Koocheki, A., and Mollafilabi, A. 2002. Saffron, Processing and Production Technology. CESC, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran 276 pp. (In Persian)
Koochaki, A., Tabrizi, L., Jahani, M., and Mohammad Abadi, A.A. 2012a. An evaluation of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm planting rate and pattern on the crops performance. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 42: 379-391. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., Alizadeh, A., and Ganjali, A. 2010. Modelling the impact of climate change on flowering behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7: 583–594. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghadam, P., and Mollafilabi, A. 2012b. Effect of plant density and type on Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield and yield components. In: 4th International Saffron Symposium. October 22-25. Kashmir, India.
Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Mollafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2013. Effects of corm planting density and applying manure on flower and corm yields of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the first year. Agroecology in Press. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Siahmarguee, A., Azizi, G., Jahani, M., and Alimoradi, L. 2009a. The effect of plant density and depth on agronomic characteristic of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Paper Presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Saffron. Forthcoming Challenges in Cultivation, Research and Economics. 20-23 May. Korokos, Kozani, Greece.
Koocheki, A., Tabrizi, L., Jahani, M., Mohammad Abadi, A.A., and Mahdavi Damghani, M. 2009b. Performance of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under different planting patterns and high corm density. Paper Presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Saffron. Forthcoming Challenges in Cultivation, Research and Economics. 20-23 May. Korokos, Kozani,Greece.
Kumar, R., Virendra, S., Kiran, D., Sharma, M., Sing, M.K., and Ahuja, P.S. 2009. Stat of art saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomi: A comprehensive review. Food Reviews International 25: 44-85.
Limon Ortega, A., Govaerta, B., and Sayer. K.D. 2008. Straw management, crop rotation, and nitrogen source effect on wheat grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy 29: 21-28.
Mohammdi Aria, M., Lakzian, A., Haghnia, G., Besharati, H., and Fotovat, A. 2010. The effect of Thiobacillus and Aspergillus on phosphorus availability of enriched rock phosphate with sulfur and vermicompost. Journal of Water and Soil 24: 1-9. (In Persian with English Summary)
Molina, R.V., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Garcýa-Luis, A., and Guardiola, J.L. 2004. The effect of time of corm lifting and the duration of incubation at inductive temperature on flowering in the saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae 103: 79-91.
Molina, R.V., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Guardiola, J.L., and Garcia-Luis, A. 2005. Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae 103: 361–379.
Mollafilabi, A. 2000. Novel production and agronomy of saffron. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Khorasan, Iran (In Persian)
Mollafilabi, A. 2014. Effect of new cropping technologies on growth characteristics, yield, yield components of flower and corm criteria of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). PhD Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Monzon, J.P., Sadras, V.O., and Andrade, F.H. 2006. Fallow soil evaporation and water storage as affected by stubble in sub-humid (Argentina) and semi-arid (Australia) environments. Field Crops Research 98: 83-90.
Naderi Dabbagh, H., Shahi, M., Khajebashi, S.M., Banitaba, A., and Ehdashti, V.M. 2008. Effect of density and planting depth on yield and productivity period of saffron farms. In Esfahan, Plant and Seed 24: 657-643. (In Persian with English Summary)
Najafinezhad, H., Javaheri, M.A., Ravari, S.Z.A., and Azad Shahraki, F.A.D. 2009. Effect of crop rotation and wheat residue management on grain yield of maize cv. KSC704 and some soil properties. Seed and Plant Production Journal 25-2: 247–260. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nehvi, F.A., Lone, A.A., Khan, M.A., and Maghdoomi, M.I. 2010. Comparative study on effect of nutrient management on growth and yield of saffron under temperate conditions of Keshmir. Acta Horticulturae 850: 165–170.
Omid Beigi, R., Ramezani, A., Sadeghi, B., and Ziaratnia, S.M. 2003. Effect of corm weight on saffron yield under Neyshabour climatic conditions. 3rd International Congress in Saffron Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Mohammad Abadi, A.A., Fallahi, J., and Aghhavani Shajari, M. 2010. Effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on number of corm and stigma yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). 59th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezvani-Moghaddam, P., Mohammad Abadi, A.A., and Sabori, A. 2006. Effect of different animal manure on flower yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forage production of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Mashhad conditions. Acta Horticulture 739: 159-163.
Sadeghi, B. 1993. Effect of corm weight on saffron flowering. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian)
Sadeghi, B. 1993. Investigation of chemical herbicides on weed control saffron fields. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian).
Sadeghi, B. 1997. Effect of summer irrigation on saffron yield. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian)
Sadeghi, B. 2008. Sustainable cropping of saffron in Iran. Research Report. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian)
Shahandeh, H. 1990. Evaluation of soil and water physic-chemical properties in related to saffron yield in Gonabad. Research Institute for Food Science and Technology, Razavi Korasan, Iran. (In Persian)
Tammaro, F. 1999. Saffron in Italy in ‘saffron’ (M. Negbi, Ed.) Harwood Academic Publication. Amsterdam 154 pp.
Temperini, O., Rea, R., Temperini, A., Colla, G., and Rouphael, Y. 2009. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) production in Italy: effect of the age of saffron fields and plant and plant density. Food, Agriculture and Environment 7: 19-23
Torabi, M., and Sadeghi, B. 1994. Leaf and corm nutrients changes during season growth of saffron. Proceeding of Saffron and Medicinal Plants Congress. Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran. (In Persian)