اثر کادمیم و سرب بر خصوصیات کمی و درصد اسانس نعناع فلفلی (Mentha piperita L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی


دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد



یکی از پیامد‌های صنعتی شدن، آلودگی محیط ‌زیست و یکی از مهمترین آلاینده‌های محیط زیست فلزات سنگین هستند که می‌توانند باعث آلودگی خاک، آب و هوا شوند. دراین تحقیق غلظت‌های کادمیم (صفر، 10،20،40،60،80،100 پی‌پی‌ام) و سرب (100،300،600،900،1200و 1500 پی‌پی‌ام) بر روی گیاه نعناع فلفلی (Mentha piperita L.) در شرایط گلخانه‌ای در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. ریزوم‌های نعناع فلفلی از مزرعه جمع‌آوری و در گلدان کشت شدند و توسط محلول‌های کلرید کادمیم و سرب استفاده شد. گیاهان در اوایل گلدهی در دو چین برداشت و از نظر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. درچین اول در غلظت 100 پی‌پی‌ام کادمیم، وزن تر، وزن خشک، سطح برگ، ارتفاع گیاه و درصد اسانس برگ به ترتیب 16/18، 88/25، 79/22، 91/17و 08/7 درصد و در چین دوم این صفات به ترتیب 24/15 ،92/22، 88/20، 92/22 و 08/7 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش یافت. همچنین در چین اول، در غلظت 1500 پی‌پی‌ام سرب، وزن تر، وزن خشک، سطح برگ، ارتفاع گیاه و درصد اسانس برگ به ترتیب، 55/24، 01/39، 58/21، 55/28 و 05/15 درصد و در چین دوم این صفات به ترتیب94/28، 31/17، 72/24، 77/26 و37/13درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش نشان داد. به نظرمی‌رسد که نعناع فلفلی در شرایط آب‌های آلوده به کادمیم و یا در خاک‌های آلوده به این عناصر سنگین در غلظت‌های متوسط می‌تواند مورد کشت قرار گیرد و اثر این عناصر سنگین اثر معنی‌داری بر تولید ماده خشک و درصد اسانس نداشت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • SH Amirmoradi
  • P rezvani moghaddam
  • A kocheki
  • Sh danesh
  • Amir fotovat
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Industrialization has been the cause of environmental pollution and one of significant pollutant is that of heavy metals. These hazardous elements can cause to water and soil pollution. These metals can accumulate in the food chain and create damages for human and livestock. Researchers revealed that increasing Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations caused to decreasing of shoot fresh weight and essential oil yield. Scavroni et al (2005) indicated that peppermint was able to accumulate the heavy metals in shoot tissues but did not enter into essential oil. Therefore study the effect of heavy metals on morphological and quantitative traits of medicinal plants is essential.
Material and Method
The experiment was done in the research greenhouse of the Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011.The treatments were arranged basis on a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were included T1:0, T2:10 ppm cd , T3:20 ppm cd,T4:40 ppm cd,T5:60 ppm cd,T6:80 ppm cd cd,T7:100 ppm cd,T8:100ppm pb, T9:300 ppm pb, T10: 600 ppm pb, T11: 900 ppm pb, T12: 1200 ppm pb and T13: 1500 ppm pb. Peppermint was cultivated with uniform weight rhizomes harvested from the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Every rhizome had two buds and six rhizomes were planted in pots of dimensions 30×50×35 cm. Treatments were irrigated with cdcl2 and pbcl2 with the administered doses and control was irrigated with distilled water. Plants were harvested two times at the first stages of flowering. The essential oil percentage was measured with 30 grams of dried leaves by Clevenger device.
Result and Discussion
Increasing cadmium and lead concentrations caused a decline of fresh and dry weight, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number per plant, number of nodes per plant and essential oil percentage compared to the control. At the first harvest, increasing doses of Cd caused a decrease of fresh weight. This decline was 18.16% at 100 ppm Cd and was 24.55% at 1500 ppm Pb compared to the control. At the second harvest, fresh weight declined by 15.24% and 32.72% compared to the control at 100 ppm cadmium and 1500 ppm lead, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 25.88% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 39.01% and 26.77% compared to the control, respectively. Stancheva et al (2010) revealed that increasing cadmium and lead concentrations caused to the shoot and root weights of sage (salvia officinalis L.) declined by 15 and 10%, respectively. They mentioned the glutathione-ascorbate cycle plays a vital role in neutralizing the destructive effects of ROS in sage. In this cycle, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase enzymes increase and lead to diminish the ROS activity. In the same doses of cadmium and lead (100 ppm), cadmium had a more reductive effects than lead for all traits except for essential oil at the first harvest. This event is due to more toxicity of cadmium compared to lead. The toxicity threshold of cadmium and lead was reported 5 and 30 mg kg-1. Tirillini et al., (2006) reported that hypericin content in essential oil of hypericum perforatum L. was not affected by chrome stress.
Essential oil, fresh and dry weight of peppermint did not show any significant change when the concentrations of cd and pb were maximum, so it seems that peppermint can be cultivated in polluted water or soil with cadmium and lead.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter
  • Heavy metal
  • Leaf area
  • Medicinal plant
  1. Abdo, F.A., Nassar, D.M.A., Gomaa, E.F., and Nassar, R.M.A. 2012. Minimizing the harmful effects of cadmium on vegetative growth, leaf anatomy, yield and physiological characteristics of soybean plant [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] by foliar spray with active yeast extract or with garlic cloves extract. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 8(1): 24-35.
  2. Ahmad Kamel, H. 2008. Lead accumulation and its effect on photosynthesis and free amino acids in Vicia faba grown hydroponically. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2(3): 438-446.
  3. Aycicek, M., Ince M., and Yaman, M. 2008. Effects of cadmium on the germination, early seedling growth and metal content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). International Journal of Science and Technology. 3(1):1-11.
  4. Azmat, R., Saba, Haider, Hajra, N., and Farha, A. 2009. A viable alternative mechanism in adapting the plants to heavy metal environment. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6): 2729-2738.
  5. Barcelo, J., Pochenrieder, Ch., Andreu, I. 1986. Cadmium-induced decrease of water stress resistance in bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender). I. Effects of Cd on water potential, relative water content and cell wall elasticity. Journal of Plant Physiology125: 17–25.
  6. Barcelo, J., Vazquez, M., and Poschenrieder, C. 1988a. Structural and ultrastructural disorders in cadmium-treated bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). New Phytology 108: 37–49.
  7. Barcelo, J., and Poschenrieder, C.1990. Plant water relations as affected by heavy metal stress: a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition 13: 1-37.
  8. Barcelo, J., Vazquez, M., Poschenrieder, Ch. 1988b. Cadmium-indused structural and ultrastuctural changes in the vascural system of bush bean stems. Botanica Acta 101:254–261.
  9. Baudouin, C., Charveron, M., Tarrouse, R., and Gall, Y. 2002 Environmental pollutants and skin cancer. Cell Biological Toxicolog 18:341-348.
  10. Bavi, Kh., Kholdebarin, B., and Moradshahi, A. 2011. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants. Pakistan. Journal. Botany 43(3): 1467-1470.
  11. Bhardwaj, P., Ashish, K., Prasadi, P. 2009. Effect of enhanced lead and cadmium in soil on physiological and biochemical attributes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Nature and Science 7(8): 63-70.
  12. Blumenthal, M. 1998. The complete German Commission Emonographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council. 459.
  13. Chen, Y.X., He, Y.F., Luo, Y.M., Yu, Y.L., Lin, Q., and Wong, M.H. 2003. Physiological mechanism of plant roots exposed to cadmium. Chemosphere 50: 789-793.
  14. Chen, Y., Wang, C., and Wang, Z. 2005. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants. Environment International 31: 778–783.
  15. Croteau, R., and Johnson, M.A. 1984. Biosynthesis of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. Chemistry of Plant Trichomes. pp. 133-185.
  16. Croteau, R., Burbott, A.J., and Lommis, W.D. 2006. Biosynthesis of mono and sesquiterpenes in peppermint. Phytochemistry 71: 2937-2948.
  17. Czepak, M.P. 1998. Produção de oleo bruto e mentol cristalizavel em oito freqüências de colheita da menta (Mentha arvensis L.). Sciences, Botucatu 53-80.
  18. Eisazadeh, S., Asadi, S., and Homaii M. 2015. Phytoremediation and optimum time estimation of polluted soil by cadmium and lead with (Spinacia oleracea L.). Journal of Agroecology 6(4): 916-926. (In Persian with English)
  19. El-Gamal, M., and Salwa, A.R.H. 2003. Counteracting the deleterious effects of lead and cadmium on tomato plants by using yeast, garlic and eucalyptus extracts. Minufiya Journal. Agricultural Research 28(3): 737-755.
  20. Elzbieta, W.C., and Chwil, M. 2005. Lead-induced histological and ultra structural changes in the leaves of soyben (Glycine max (L) Meee.). Soil Science, Plant Nutrition 51: 203-212.
  21. Emese, S., Rita, A., Katalin, G., and Gabriella, M.G. 2009. Change of bioaccumulation of toxic metals in vegetables. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40: 285-293.
  22. Fouda, R.A., and Arafa, A.A. 2002. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity on soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. By inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae or kinetin. Journal of Agricultural. Science Mansoura University 27(11): 7385-7403.
  23. Fuhrer, J. 1982. Ethylene biosynthesis and cadmium toxicity in leaf tissue of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Physiology 70: 162–167.
  24. Ghaderian, S.M., and Jamali Hajiani, N. 2010. Tolerance, uptake and accumulation of cadmium in Matthiola chenopodiifolia Fisch & C.A. Mey (Brassicaceae). Journal of Plant Biology 6: 87-98.
  25. Ghani, A. 2010. Effect of cadmium toxicity on the growth and yield components of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. World Applied Sciences (Special Issue of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering) 8: 26-29.
  26. Hassan, M.J., Zhu, Z., Ahmad, B., and Mahmood, F. 2006. Influence of cadmium toxicity on rice genotypes as affected by zinc, sulfur and nitrogen fertilizers. Caspin Journal of Environmental Science 4(1): 1-8.
  27. Jing, D., Fei-bo, W.U., and Guo-ping, Z. 2005. Effect of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis of tomato seedlings. Journal of Zhejiang University Sinece 6(10): 974-980.
  28. Jun, R., Ling, T., and Guanghua, Z. 2009. Effects of chromium on seed gemination, root elongation and coleoptile growth in six pulses. International. Journal. Environment. Science. Technology 6: 571-578.
  29. Kabir, M., Iqbal, M.Z., Shafiq, M., and Farooqi, Z.R. 2010. Effects of lead on seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L. Plant Soil Environment 56(4): 194–199.
  30. Kasim, W.A., 2005. The correlation between physiological and structural alterations induced by copper and cadmium stress in broad beans (Vicia faba L.). Egyptian Journal of Biology 7: 20-32.
  31. Lamoreaux, R., and Chaney, W. 1977. Growth and water movement in silver maple seedlings affected by cadmium. Journal of Environmental Quality 6(2): 201–204.
  32. Lozano-Rodriguez, E., Hernandez, L.E., Bonay, P., and Carpena-Ruiz, R.O. 1997. Distribution of cadmium in shoot and root tissues of maize and pea plants: physiological disturbances. Journal of Experimental Botany 48(306): 123-128.
  33. Liu, W.X., Li, H.H., Li, S.R., and Wang, Y.W. 2006. Heavy metal accumulation of edible vegetables cultivated in agricultural soil in the suburb of Zhengzhou city, People’s Republic of China. Bulltain of Environment Contamination Toxicology 76: 163–170
  34. Marchiol, L., Leita, L., Martin, M., Peterssotti, A., and Zerbi, G. 1996. Physiological responses of two soybean cultivars to cadmium. Journal. Environmental. Quality 25: 562–566.
  35. Marques, P.G.C., Rangel, O.S.S., and Castro, M.L. 2007. Effect of arsenic, lead and znic on seed germination and plant growth in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) vs. clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.). Fresenius Eviromental Bulltain 16: 896-903.
  36. Mihalescu, LA., Mare-Rosca, O.E., Marian, M., and Bildar, C.F. 2010. Research on the growth intensity of the zea mays L. plantlets aerial parts under cadmium treatment. Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie 147-151.
  37. Moya, J.L., Ros, R., and Picazo, I. 1993. Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth, net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution in rice plants. Photosynthetic Research 36: 75-80, 1993.
  38. Muchuweti, M., Birkett, J.W., Chinyanga, E., Zvauya, R., Scrimshaw, M.D., and Lester, J.N. 2006. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 112: 41–48.
  39. Padmaja, K., Parsad D.K., and Parsad, A.R., 1990. Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings by cadmium acetate. Photosynthetica 24: 399–404.
  40. Padmavathiamma, P.K., and Li, L.Y. 2007. Phytoremediation technology: Hyper-accumulation metals in plants. Water Air and Soil Pollution 184:105–126.
  41. Patra, M., Bhowmik, N., Bandopadhyay, B., and Sharma, A. 2004. Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 52: 199-223.
  42. Rosa, G., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Montes, M., Parsons, J. G., Cano-Aguilera, I. and Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. 2004. Cadmium uptake and translocation in tumbleweed (Salsola kali), a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator desert plant species: ICP/OES and XAS studies. Chemosphere 55: 1159-1168.
  43. Rotkittikhun, P., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., and Baker, A.J.M. 2010. Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production. Journal of Environmental Biology 31: 329-334.
  44. Samsam Shariat, H. 1995. Medical plant propagaton. Mani Publication, Tehran, Iran 419 pp. (In Persian)
  45. Sanita di Toppi, L., and Gabbrielli, R. 1999. Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 41: 105-130.
  46. Scavroni, J., Sivia Fernandes Boaro, C., Ortiz Mayo Marques, M., and Cesar Ferreira L. 2005. Yield and composition of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae) grown with biosolid. Brazilian Journal. Plant Physiology 17(4): 345-352.
  47. Scora, R.W., and Chang, A.C. 1997. Essential oil quality and heavy metal concentrations of peppermint grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil. Journal of Environtal. Quality. 26(4): 975-979.
  48. Sengar, R.S., Gautam, M., Garg, S.K., Chaudhary, R., and Sengar, K. 2008. Effect of lead on seed germination, seedling growth, chlorophyll content and nitrate reductase activity in mung bean (Vigna radiate L.). Research Journal of Phytochemistry 2: 61-68.
  49. Shah, F.R., Ahmad, N., Masood, K.R., and Zahid, D.M. 2008. The influence of cadmium and chromium on the biomass production of shisham (Dalbergia sissoo ROXB.) seedlings. Pakistan. Journal of Botany 40(4): 1341-1348.
  50. Shanker, A.K., Cervantes, C., Loza-Tavera, H., and Avudainayagam, S. 2005. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International 31: 63-68.
  51. Siddhu, G., and Ali Khan, M.A. 2012. Effects of cadmium on growth and metabolism of Phaseolus mungo. Journal of Environmental Biology 33: 173-179.
  52. Singh, S., and Singh, A., and Bahadur, R. 2011. Effect of cadmium on germination and seedling growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). 2011. Plant Archives 11( 2): 859-862.
  53. Singh, K.P., Mohan, D., Sinha, S., and Dalwani, R. 2004. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere 55: 227–255.
  54. Soghoian, S., and Sinert, R. 2009. Toxicity, heavy metals. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814960-overview [accessed January 2009].
  55. Srivastava, N.K. and Luthra, R. 1994. Relationship between photosynthetic carbon metabolism and essential oil biogenesis in peppermint under Mnstress. Journal of Experimental Botany 45: 1127-1132.
  56. Sun, Y., Zhou, Q., and Diao, C.2008. Effects of cadmium and arsenic on growth and metal accumulation of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Bioresource Technology 99: 1103–1110.
  57. Stancheva, L., Geneva, M., Hristozkova, M., Markovska, and Salamon, I. 2010. Antioxidant capacity of sage grown on heavy metal-polluted soil. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 57: 799-805.
  58. Street, R.A., Kulkarni, M.G., Stirk, W.A., Southway C., and Staden, J. 2007. Toxicity of metal elements on germination and seedling growth of widely used medicinal plants belonging to Hyacinthaceae. Bull. Environmental Contamination Toxicology 79: 371-376.
  59. Tirillini, B., Ricci, A., Pintore, G., Chessa, M., and Sighinolfi, S. 2006. Induction of Hypericins in Hypericum perforatum in Response to Chromium. Fitoterapia 77: 164-70.
  60. Topalov, V. and Zhelyazkov, V. 1991. Effect of harvesting on the yield of fresh material, essential oil, and planting material from Mentha piperita L. and Mentha arvensis L. Herba. Hung 50: 60-67.
  61. Van Balen, E., Geijn, V.D., and Desmet, G. 1980. Autoradiographic evidence for the incorporation of cadmium into calcium oxalate crystals. Z. Pflanzenphysiol 97: 123–133.
  62. Vassilev, A., Yordanov, I., and Tsonev, T. 1997. Effects of Cd2+ on the physiological state and photosynthetic activity of young barley plants. Photosynthetica 34(2): 293–302.
  63. Vassilev, A., and Yordanov, I. 1997. Reductive analysis of factors limiting growth of cadmium –treated plants: A Review: Bulg. Journal of Plant Physiology 23(3-4): 114-133.
  64. Vazquez, M., Poschenrieder, C., and Barcelo, J. 1989. Pulvinus structure and leaf abscission in cadmium-treated bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 2756–2764.
  65. Wei, S.H., and Zhou, Q.X., 2004. Discussion on basic principles and strengthening measures for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. Chinese Journal of Ecology 23: 65–72 (in Chinese).
  66. Wierzbicka, M. 1995. How lead loses its toxicity to plant. Act. Soc. Bot. Pol 64: 81-90.
  67. Wojcik, M., Vangronsveld, J., and Tukiendorf, A. 2005. Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspi caerulescens: Growth parameters, metal accumulation and phytochelatin synthesis in response to cadmium. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53: 151-161.
  68. Yancey, P., Clark, M., Hand, S., Bowlus, R., and Somero, G. 1982. Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217: 1212–1222.
  69. Yang, X.E., Long, X.X., Ye, H.B., He, Z.L., Calvert, D.V., and Stoffella, P.J. 2004. Cadmium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in a new Znhyperaccumulating plant species (Sedum alfrdii Hance). Plant and Soil 259: 181–189.
  70. Zhao, S., Ye, X., and Zheng, J. 2011. Lead-induced changes in plant morphology, cell ultrastructure, growth and yields of tomato. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(50): 10116-10124.
  71. Zheljazkov, V.D., Craker, L.E., and Xing, B. 2006. Effects of Cd, Pb, and Cu on growth and essential oil contents in dill, peppermint, and basil Environmental and Experimental Botany 58: 9–16.
  72. Zheljazkov, V.D., and Nielsen, N.E. 1993. Studies on the effect of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) upon the growth, productivity and quality of lavander (Lavandula vera D.C.) Production. A Paper Presented at the 24th International Symposium on Essential Oils. Berlin Journal of Essential Oil Research. (In Press).
  73. Zheljazkov, V.D., and Nielson, N.E. 1996. Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint. Plant and Soil 178: 59–66.
  74. Zheljazkov, V.D., and Warman, P.R. 2003. Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste Compost Application to Swiss Chard and Basil. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Technical Report.