مطالعه اثر تنش خشکی و برخی باکتری‌های ریزوسفری محرک رشد گیاهی برکارایی مصرف نور و ضریب تخصیص مواد به غلاف در ارقام کلزا (Brassica spp. L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز بجنورد

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

کارایی مصرف نور و ضریب تخصیص مواد در ارقام کلزا متعلق به سه گونه کلزای معمولی (Brasica napus L.)، شلغم روغنی (Brasica rapa L.) و خردل وحشی (Brasica juncea L.) در شرایط تنش و عدم تنش خشکی و کاربرد نژادهای سودوموناس در دو آزمایش (شامل مزرعه تنش و عدم تنش) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی طرق مشهد در سال زراعی90-1389، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی در این دو آزمایش شامل: الف: فاکتور اول شامل، چهار سطح تلقیح با باکتری سودوموناس (تلقیح با" سودوموناس فلورسنس 169Pseudomonas fluorescens "، "سودوموناس پوتیدا 108 P. putida"، مخلوط دو سویه و تیمار شاهد بدون تلقیح) و ب: فاکتور دوم شامل شش ژنوتیپ کلزا از سه گونه براسیکا که شامل Hyolla 330, Hyolla 401 متعلق به گونه B. napus و Parkland, Goldrush متعلق به گونه B. rapa و BP18, Landrace متعلق به گونه B. juncea بودند. نتایج تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطح رقم، باکتری و اثر متقابل باکتری در رقم در مورد صفت کارایی مصرف نور را نشان داد. باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنس در محیط بدون تنش بیشترین کارایی مصرف نور را با 071/0 ± 39/0 بر حسب گرم بر مگاژول و کمترین این مقدار مربوط به تلفیق دو نژاد باکتری در محیط تنش با 03/0 ± 21/0 گرم بر مگاژول حاصل شد. در سطح رقم، رقم ‌هایولا 330 در شرایط عدم تنش با 047/0 ± 45/0 گرم بر مگاژول بیشترین و رقم BP18 در شرایط تنش با 06/0 ± 11/0 گرم بر مگاژول کمترین این ضریب را نشان دادند. در سطح باکتری در رقم نیز باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنس در رقم گلدراش (B2V4) در محیط عدم تنش با 08/0 ± 62/0 گرم بر مگاژول بیشترین و تلفیق دو نژاد باکتری در رقم لندریس (B1V6) در محیط تنش با 017/0 ± 100/0 گرم بر مگاژول کمترین مقدار را به خود اختصاص دادند. نتایج همچنین در مورد صفت کارایی مصرف نور نشان داد که ضرایب معادله‌ها در هر سه سطح (باکتری، رقم و باکتری در رقم) در شرایط عدم تنش بالاتر از محیط تنش بود. اثر متقابل باکتری در رقم و رقم در هر دو محیط تفاوت معنی‌داری را در مورد صفت ضریب تخصیص مواد به غلاف نشان دادند. در سطح باکتری در رقم، باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنس در رقم ‌هایولا 330 (B2V2) در محیط عدم تنش با 08/0 ± 93/0 گرم ماده خشک غلاف به گرم ماده خشک اندام هوایی بیشترین و تلفیق دو نژاد باکتری در رقم (B1V5) BP18 در محیط تنش با 02/0 ± 16/0 گرم ماده خشک غلاف به گرم ماده خشک اندام هوایی کمترین ضریب تخصیص را داشتند. نتایج مقایسه دو محیط در سطح رقم همچنین نشان داد که رقم ‌هایولا 401 در محیط عدم تنش با 03/0+62/0 گرم ماده خشک غلاف به گرم ماده خشک اندام هوایی بیشترین و رقم BP18 در محیط تنش با 05/0+27/0 گرم ماده خشک غلاف به گرم ماده خشک اندام هوایی کمترین ضریب تخصیص مواد به غلاف را داشتند. تنش خشکی از طریق اختلال در فعالیت‌های گیاهی و پروسه رشد، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار در مورد صفت ضریب تخصیص مواد به غلاف و کارایی مصرف نور شد. تلقیح باکتری به تنهایی اثر سینرژیک و تیمار تلفیق دو نژاد باکتری اثر آنتاگونیسمی بر صفت کارایی مصرف نور و ضریب تخصیص مواد به غلاف داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Drought and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Radiation Use Efficiency and Dry Matter Partitioning Into Pod in Different Cultivars of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pooya Arvin 1
  • Javad Vafa bakhsh 2
1 Payame Noor University
2 Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years (Arvin et al., 2011). Several factors such as water shortage, low relative humidity, heat and salinity can make drought stress. Radiation use efficiency and yield components are the effective factors of yield formation in oilseed rape. Drought tolerance in oilseed rape depends on other factors except radiation use efficiency. Studies have indicated that plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (PGPRs) has a direct effect on growth and they can cause resistance to the abiotic stress as well. Hence, considering the drought climate in Iran and the effects of PGPRs on increasing resistance to abiotic stress and relief of drought effects and the importance of the cultivation of oilseed rape in Iran, the present research was done with the goal of study of drought and some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on radiation use efficiency and dry matter partitioning into pod in different cultivars of oilseed rape.

Materials and methods
The current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments) during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 as).Two research sites (under stress and non-stress fields) were beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm). The experimental design was factorial based on randomized compeletly block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was plant growth promoting rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control), B1:co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169+P. putida 108), B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush cultivars belong to B. rapa and BP18 and landrace cultivars belong to B.juncea . Radiation use efficiency and the allocation coefficient of materials to pods were measured in the present study as well. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SAS ver. 9.1 software.
Results and discussion
Radiation use efficiency
There were significant differences between stress and non-stress conditions in levels of bacteria, cultivar and bacteria × cultivar regarding radiation use efficiency. The outcomes showed that the coefficients of radiation use efficiency in each level (bacteria, cultivar and bacteria × cultivar) under non-stress condition was comparatively higher under stress condition. The interaction effects of bacteria × cultivar showed that P. flourescens× Goldrush under non-stress condition with 0.62±0.08 dm.mg-1 had the most and two strains of bacteria× Landrace with 0.1±0.017 dm.mg-1 had the least radiation use efficiency. Regarding bacteria level, Pseudomonas flourescens under non-stress condition with the average of 0.39±0.071 dm.mg-1 had the highest radiation use efficiency. Hayola330 cultivar with 0.45±0.047 and Hayola401 cultivar with 0.39±0.038 dm.mg-1 obtained the greatest RUE under non-stress condition and BP18 cultivar with 0.11±0.06 dm.mg-1 revealed the lowest RUE under stress condition. Both drought stress and simultaneous application with two strains of bacteria had negative effects on RUE.
Dry matter partitioning into pod
In this trial, considerable difference regarding pod partitioning coefficient revealed in the level of cultivar and bacteria × cultivar. The value of the pod partitioning coefficient under this investigation ranged from 0.9393± 0.084 under non-stress condition to 0.1634± 0.0210 under stress condition. Although inoculation treatment of bacteria had the synergy effect, co-inoculation treatment had the antagonistic effect of pod partitioning coefficient. Moreover, the rate of the pod partitioning coefficient lessened under drought condition. Berry & Spink (2006) and Arvin et al. (2014) stated that there were positive correlation between HI and partitioning photoasimilate in to economic organs. The results of the present study showed that dry matter partitioning into the pod with a final yield had a 91% positive correlation under non-stress and 74% under stress condition.

Conclusion
In conclusion, negative effects of drought and positive effects of application of bacteria on RUE and pod dry matter partitioning were obtained in this trail. The results illustrated that separate application of bacteria had synergy effect and conflation of two strains of bacteria had an antagonistic effect on both studied traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brassica napus
  • B. rapa
  • B. juncea
  • Pseudomonas strains
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