اثر کاربرد همزمان میکوریزا و کودهای آلی کمپوست، ورمی‌کمپوست و گرانوله‌ گوگردی بر برخی ویژگی های کمی و کیفی کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) در یک نظام زراعی کم‌نهاده

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر، با افزایش دانش بشری توجه به سلامت فرآورده‌های غذایی و بویژه محصولات دارویی افزایش یافته است، از این رو استفاده از نهاده‌های اکولوژیک برای تولید این محصولات بیشتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد همزمان میکوریزا و کودهای آلی بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) آزمایشی در سال زراعی 89-1388 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل میکوریزا (Glomus mosseae)، میکوریزا به‌علاوه‌ی کمپوست، میکوریزا به‌علاوه‌ی ورمی‌کمپوست، میکوریزا به‌علاوه‌ی گرانوله‌ی گوگردی، کمپوست، ورمی‌کمپوست، گرانوله‌ی گوگردی و شاهد (بدون کود) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر کودهای بیولوژیک و آلی بر عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود، به طوری‌که میکوریزا چه به تنهایی و چه در ترکیب با کودهای آلی گرانوله‌ی گوگردی و ورمی‌کمپوست باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد شد. عملکرد بیولوژیک، در اثر تیمارهای ورمی‌کمپوست و گرانوله‌ی گوگردی همراه با میکوریزا نسبت به زمانی که این کودها به تنهایی به کار رفتند به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. استفاده از کودهای آلی همراه با میکوریزا باعث افزایش درصد روغن کنجد شد، به طوری‌‌که در کاربرد همزمان میکوریزا و هر یک از کودهای کمپوست، ورمی‌کمپوست و گرانوله‌ی گوگردی روغن دانه به‌ترتیب 12، 13 و 10 درصد نسبت به کاربرد جداگانه‌ی میکوریزا افزایش یافت. به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده‌ی همزمان از نهاده‌های بوم‌سازگار می-تواند خصوصیات کمی و کیفی کنجد را بهبود بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in a low input cropping system

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.b Amiri 2
  • H.R Ehyaee 1
2 مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In recent years, by increasing human knowledge and using different technology on food production, human concerns have increased on safety of food products especially medicinal crops. In order to achieve healthy food production, application of ecological inputs such as organic and biological fertilizers are inevitable. Organic fertilizers are fertilizer compounds that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. They can improve the soil ability to hold water and nutrients. They create a beneficial environment for earthworms and microbial organisms that break the soil down into rich, fine humus (Motta & Magggiore, 2013).
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost can greatly enhance the physical structure of soil. The addition of compost may provide greater drought resistance and more efficient water utilization.
Vermicompost is the final product of composting organic material using different types of worms, such as red wigglers or earthworms, to create a homogenized blend of decomposed vegetable and food waste, bedding materials and manure. Vermicompost helps store nutrients and keeps them safe from leaching and irrigation, functioning to balance hormones within plant physiology, and adding beneficial biology to soil (Raja Sekar & Karmegan, 2010).
Mycorrhiza arbuscular fungi are other coexist microorganisms that improves soil fertility, nutrients cycling and agroecosystem health. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant organisms in agricultural soils. Many researchers have pointed to the positive roles of mycorrhizal fungi on plants growth characteristics.
Despite of many researches on the effect of organic and biological fertilizers on different crops, information on the effects of these fertilizers for many medicinal plants is scarce, therefore, in this study the effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in a low input cropping system was investigated.

Materials and methods
In order to evaluate the effects of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza and organic fertilizers on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Farm, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season 2009-2010 growing season. Treatments were mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae), mycorrhiza+compost, mycorrhiza+vermicompost, mycorrhiza+organic sulfural geranole, compost, vermicompost, Organic sulfural geranole and control (no fertilizer). Finally, data analysis was done using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by duncan’s multiple range test at 5% level of probability.

Results and discussion
The results showed that the effect of different organic and biological fertilizers were significant on seed yield. Seed yield significantly increased by using mycorrhiza in both condition of single and mixed with organic sulfural geranole and vermicompost compared to control treatment. Biological yield, in simultaneous application of vermicompost and organic sulfural geranole with mycorrhiza increased significantly compared to separate use of these fertilizers. All study organic fertilizers with mycorrhiza had significant effect on increasing oil content of sesame. Seed oil increased in simultaneous application of mycorrhiza and each of compost, vermicompost and organic sulfural geranole compared to separate application of mycorrhiza 12, 13 and 10 percentages, respectively.
It seems that mycorrhiza and organic fertilizers improved quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame due to provide better conditions to absorption and transportation of nutrient to the plant (Hawkes et al., 2008).

Conclusion
In general, the results showed that the simultaneous use of ecological inputs can improve quantitative and qualitative characteristics of plant, moreover, decreased environment risks of chemical inputs and ensure sustainability of production in long time by this approach.

Acknowledgments
We wish to thank Vice President for Research and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the financial support of the project.

Keywords: Ecological inputs, Glomus mosseae, Health of food, Medicinal crops

References
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Motta, S.R., and Maggiore, T. 2013. Evaluation of nitrogen management in maize cultivation grown on soil amended with sewage sludge and urea. European Journal of Agronomy 45: 59-67.
Raja Sekar, K., and Karmegan, N. 2010. Earthworm casts as an alternate carrier material for biofertilizers: Assessment of endurance and viability of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Scientia Horticulturae 124: 286-289.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecological inputs
  • Glomus mosseae
  • Health of food
  • Medicinal crops
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