ارزیابی توان جذب آب سوپرجاذب در پاسخ به تغییرات دما، شوری و تناوب آب گیری و تأثیر آن بر عملکرد و کیفیت الیاف پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) در شرایط کم آبیاری

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22067/jag.v7i4.46446

چکیده

در این پژوهش ابتدا اثر عوامل دما (4، 10، 20، 30 و 40 درجة سانتی گراد)، شوری (0، 25/0، 5/0، 75/0 و 1 درصد شوری ناشی از کلرید سدیم در دو دمای 10 و 25 درجة سانتی گراد) و تناوب آب گیری (از 1 تا 5 مرحله آب دهی و آب گیری متناوب) بر توان جذب آب توسط پلی مر سوپرجاذب در شرایط آزمایشگاهی شبیه سازی شد و سپس میزان تاثیرگذاری سطوح مختلف این ترکیبات (0، 30، 60 و 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط کم آبیاری (آبیاری با مدار 12، 15 و 18 روز) بر عملکرد و کیفیت الیاف تولیدیِ گیاه پنبه در دانشکده کشاورزی سرایان (دانشگاه بیرجند) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که شوری آب آبیاری در هر دو دمای 10 و 25 درجة سانتی گراد تاثیر کاهشی شدیدی بر توان جذب آب توسط سوپرجاذب داشت، به طوری که با افزایش شدت تنش شوری از صفر به 25/0 و 1 درصد، مقدار آب جذب شده توسط این ماده به ترتیب حدود 73 و 85 درصد کاهش یافت. در بین تیمارهای دمایی مورد بررسی، بیشترین توان جذب آب توسط سوپرجاذب در دمای 20 درجة سانتی گراد به دست آمد. مقدار آب جذب شده توسط این ماده در دمای 20 درجه به ترتیب 8 و 13 درصد بیشتر از دماهای 4 و 40 درجة سانتی گراد بود. افزون بر این، قدرت جذب آب توسط هر گرم پلی مر سوپرجاذب در طی دوره های اول تا پنجم آب گیری به ترتیب 266، 311، 334، 340 و 355 گرم بود. نتایج آزمایش مزرعه ای نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد پنبه در شرایط مصرف 60 کیلوگرم سوپرجاذب و انجام آبیاری با مدار 15 روز (معادل 155 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر)، به مقدار 5027 کیلوگرم وش در هر هکتار به دست آمد. افزایش مدار آبیاری پنبه از 15 به 18 روز با وجود این که موجب کاهش حدود 20 درصدی عملکرد شد، اما بر هیچ کدام از شاخص های کیفی الیاف پنبه شامل طول الیاف، شاخص یکنواختی، استحکام، کشش، ظرافت، درخشندگی، زردی، نسبت رسیدگی و میزان الیاف کوتاه تاثیر منفی بر جا نگذاشت. افزون بر این، مصرف سطوح مختلف سوپرجاذب نیز هیچ نوع تاثیر منفی یا مثبت قابل توجهی بر شاخص های کیفی پنبه اعمال ننمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of superabsorbent efficiency in response to dehydration frequencies, salinity and temperature and its effect on yield and quality of cotton under deficit irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid-Reza Fallahi 1
  • mahsa aghhavani-shajari 2
  • reza tahepour kalantari 1
  • mohammad ghasem soltanzadeh 1
1 birjand university
2 ferdowsi university
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Reduced availability of water resources in many arid countries including Iran, particularly in response to the indiscriminate harvesting of water reservoirs and climate change, has created concerns. Therefore, the sustainable use of water resources especially in agriculture is a necessity for these countries. Strategies such as deficit irrigation and superabsorbent application are two important ways for improving water use efficiency in agricultural lands. In deficit irrigation the crop must be irrigated less than its required water. Therefore, some reduction may occur in crop yield, but the savings in water will improve the water use efficiency (Akbari Nodehi, 2011). Superabsorbent polymers also increase the nutrients and water holding capacity of soil for a long time and thereby reduce crop water requirement. However, the effectiveness of these materials could be affected by dehydration frequencies, temperature and irrigation water quality (Karimi et al., 2009). Due to the limitation of water resources in many parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cotton production under deficit irrigation along with application of different rates of superabsorbent. In addition, simulation of superabsorbent efficiency at different levels of salinity, temperature and dehydration frequencies (swelling and de-swelling) were the other objectives in this study.

Materials and methods
1. Laboratory experiments
In these experiments the effects of temperature (4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C), salinity (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% NaCl solutions at two temperatures of 10 and 25°C) and frequency of partial dehydration (from 1 to 5 stages watering and 70% dewatering) were simulated on water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymer at laboratory of environmental stresses, Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University.

2- Field experiment
This experiment was designed at Research Station of Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University, Iran, during 2014. The experiment was carried out as factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Study factors were consisted of different levels of superabsorbent (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg.ha-1) and deficit irrigation [irrigation intervals of 12 (control), 15 and 18 days equal to ~120, 155 and 190 mm evaporation from pan, respectively]. Seeds of cotton (Khordad cultivar) were sown in 20 June, with 60×25 cm distances in 3×4 m plots. The harvesting of cotton was performed at three times on 27 Oct, 10 Nov and 17 Nov. At the end of experimental period the yield and quality indices of produced fibers including fiber length, uniformity index, strength, elasticity, fineness (micronaire), brightness, yellowing, ripening ratio and short fibers percentages were measured. Finally, statistical analysis was employed by using the Duncan’s multiple range test at the 5% level of probability.

Results and discussion
Results of laboratory experiments showed that salinity had considerable negative effects on water absorption capacity of superabsorbent in both 10 and 25°C temperatures. The amount of water absorbed by superabsorbent reduced by 73% and 85% by increasing salinity from 0 to 0.25% and to 1%, respectively. In addition, the effect of temperature changes was significant on the water absorption capacity of superabsorbent. The highest value of water absorbed by the superabsorbent was obtained at 20 °C treatment. The amounts of water absorbed at 20 °C, were 8% and 13% higher than 4 °C and 40 °C, respectively. In similar study it has been concluded that swelling of polyaspartic acid hydrogels decreased when the temperature of the aqueous media increased from 25 °C to 60°C (Zhao et al., 2005). The amounts of water absorption ability of superabsorbent during 1 to 5 watering and dewatering cycles were 266, 311, 334, 340 and 355 g g-1, respectively. Results of field experiment showed that cotton yield was significantly affected by irrigation management and superabsorbent application. Application of 60 kg ha-1 superabsorbent along with irrigation intervals of 15 days was the best combined treatment in terms of fiber production. Moreover, experimental factors had no negative effect on the quality indices of produced fibers.

Conclusion
Results of this experiment showed that superabsorbent application and deficit irrigation are the two potential strategies for cotton production in semi-arid regions, especially if low saline water sources are used.

Acknowledgments
We wish to thank Vice President for Research and Technology, University of Birjand, Iran for the financial support of the project (Approved on November 26, 2014).

Keywords: Boll, Fiber fineness, Ripening ratio, Salinity stress, Uniformity

References
Akbari Nodehi, D. 2011. The effect of different water quantities on yield, water use efficiency and cotton yield function in Mazandaran province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 21: 103-11. (In Persian with English Summary)
Karimi, A., Noshadi, M., and Ahmadzadeh, M. 2009. Effects of super absorbent polymer (igeta) on crop, soil water and irrigation interval. Journal of Water and Soil Science 12(46): 403-414. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zhao, Y., Su, H., Fang, L., and Tan, T. 2005. Superabsorbent hydrogels from poly (aspartic acid) with salt- temperature- and pH-responsiveness properties. Polymer 46: 5368-5376.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Boll
  • Micronaire
  • Ripening ratio
  • Salinity stress
  • Uniformity index
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