اثر منابع مختلف کود بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای (Zea mays L.) تحت تأثیر مدیریت‌های مختلف خاک ورزی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زابل

2 زابل

چکیده

در راستای توسعه کشاورزی پایدار، آزمایشی به منظور بررسی اثر منابع مختلف کود (کود سبز، کود دامی و کود شیمیایی) بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه ای، تحت تأثیر مدیریت های مختلف خاک ورزی، به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زهک طی دو سال زراعی 1392-1391 و 1393-1392 به اجرا در آمد. جو به عنوان کود سبز قبل از کشت ذرت در پاییز هر سال کشت شد. سیستم خاک ورزی به عنوان عامل اصلی در دو سطح شامل: خاک ورزی متداول و بدون خاک ورزی و منابع کودی شامل: 1- شاهد ( بدون مصرف کود)، 2- کود سبز جو بدون مصرف کود دامی و شیمیایی،3- کود سبز جو همراه با مصرف کامل کود شیمیایی به جو ، 4- کود سبز جو به همراه دو سوم کود شیمیایی به جو و یک سوم باقی مانده به ذرت، 5- کود سبز جو به همراه یک سوم کود شیمیایی به جو و دو سوم باقی مانده به ذرت، 6- کود سبز جو به همراه مخلوط نصف کود دامی و شیمیایی و 7- کود سبز جو به همراه 40 تن کود دامی به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که سال، منابع مختلف کود و سیستم خاک ورزی اثر معنی دار بر ارتفاع بوته، طول بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت و عملکرد دانه در هکتار داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در سیستم خاک ورزی متداول با میانگین 85/6057 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه از تیمار کود سبز جو به همراه مخلوط نصف کود دامی و شیمیایی با میانگین 7019 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. برهمکنش سال در سیستم خاک ورزی در منبع کود نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد در سال دوم در سیستم خاک ورزی متداول و در تیمار 6 با میانگین عملکرد 9400 کیلوگرم در هکتار حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از این تحقیق می توان نتیجه گیری کرد که استفاده از کود سبز به همراه مخلوط کردن کود دامی و شیمیایی همراه با سیستم خاک ورزی متداول ضمن دستیابی به عملکرد بالا فوایدی چون کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی و حفظ محیط زیست را به دنبال خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L.) affected by tillage managements

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Ghasemi 1
  • ahmad ghanbari 1
  • baratali fakheri 2
  • hamidreza fanaie 2
1 zabol  
2 zabol
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Due to the development of sustainable agriculture and the reduction of utilizing chemical fertilizers, it is essential to use organic fertilizer. Organic matter is vital to soil fertility and its productivity. To maintain the level of fertility and the strength of soil, organic matter levels should be maintained at an appropriate level. Unfortunately, the level of organic matter in soil is generally less than 1%. One solution to increase the soil’s organic matter content is to use organic fertilizers such as animal manure, green manure, and vermicompost (Nuralvandy, 2011). As a correction factor, green manure can increase water supply and nutrient soil conservation (Tajbakhsh et al., 2005).

Materials and methods
In order to assess the effects of fertilizer sources (green manure, cow manure, and chemical fertilizer) on maize yield and yield components (KSC 704) under tillage management, a field experiment was carried out at Zahak Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station in two years (from 2013 to 2014). Before corn planting, barley was planted as green manure in the fall of each year. The experiment was conducted as a split plot arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The main plots were tillage and no tillage, whereas the sub plots were: 1-barley green manure (without application of fertilizer), 2-barley green manure with applying 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK) to the barley during cultivation, tillering and stemming stages, 3- green manure with 2/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 1/3 to the maize, 4- green manure with 1/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 2/3 to the maize, 5- barley green manure with 50% animal and chemical manures, 6- barley green manure with 40 t ha-1 of animal manure, 7-control (non-fertilizer application). Corn was planted on 15 March each year. Phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, and animal manure were added to the soil as the base fertilizers. At full maturity, 10 plants were randomly selected and the plant height, the number of kernels per row, the number of rows per ear, the seed weight, the harvest index, and the ear length were measured, separately.

Results and discussion
The results showed that in comparison with the first year, in the second year a significant increase was observed in plant height, ear length, number of kernel per row, weight of 100 seed weight, harvest index, and seed yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from the conventional tillage systems (mixing the fertilizer with the soil) with the mean of 4494.85 kg.ha-1. Other characteristics, except the number of row per ear, increased more in the conventional tillage than in the no tillage. Fertilizer sources were significant for plant height, ear length, number of kernel per row, weight of 100 kernels, harvest index, and seed yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from the sixth treatment (mix of animal, chemical and green manures) with the mean of 7018.5 kg.ha-1. The interaction of year, tillage and fertilizer sources indicated that the highest grain yield and 100 seed weight were obtained from the conventional tillage systems and from the 6th treatment (mix of animal, chemical and green manures) with the means of 9400.33 kg.ha-1 and 246 g, respectively. In the conventional tillage, microbial decomposition occurs faster than in the no tillage. Nutrients are released in vicinity of the plant roots and it can be placed conveniently at the disposal plant. In this way, the sixth treatment will achieve higher yield and better quality, because it can create diverse sources of essential nutrients for the plant; moreover, it can increase absorption capacity in corn.

Conclusion
In conventional tillage systems, where the sources of fertilizer are mixed with soil, the plant is placed in direct contact with the soil degrading bacteria, accelerating the fertilizers’ mineralization, and ultimately, improving the plant growth. Due to high soil density, the root growth limited during the first year of no tillage. Organic Food Systems (green manure and animal manure) provide the mineral food for plants. However, the low rate of mineralization in the early stages of root development can limit the nutrient availability. Nevertheless, these limits are removed over time. Integration of green manure, animal manure, and chemical fertilizer with conventional tillage not only strengthens the initial growth but it also accelerates the mineralization. In general, it can be concluded that application of green, animal, and chemical manures and conventional tillage for corn production can both reduce chemical fertilizer and environmental pollution and play a positive role in increasing the yield of maize.

Keywords: Barley, Ear length, 1000- Grain weight, Harvest index, No tillage

References
Nuralvandy, T., Ardekani, M.R., Kashani, H., Vazan, S., and Sadeghi Shoa, M. 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of sweet corn. Agronomy Journal 7(3): 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary)
Tajbakhsh, M., Hassanzadeh Ghurttape, H., and Darvishzadeh, B. 2005. Green manures in sustainable agriculture. Printing 1, Publishing Jihad Uromia University 215 pp. (In Persian)

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • barley
  • Ear length
  • Harvest index
  • No tillage
1- Anna, B., Francisca, S., Iker, M., and Jaume, L. 2012. The impact of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil quality parameters and the productivity of irrigated maize crops in semiarid regions. European Journal Biology 53: 56-61.
2- Astier, M., Mass, J.M., Etchevers Barra, J.D., Pena, J.J., and Deleon Gonzalez, F. 2006. Short-term green manure and tillage management effects on maize yield and soil quality in an Andisol. Soil and Tillage Research 88: 153-159.
3- Campbell, C.A., Zenther, R.P., Selles, F., Biederbeck, V.O., and Leyshon, A.J. 1992. Comparative effects of grain lentil-wheat and monoculture wheat on crop production, N economy and N fertility in a Brown chernozom. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 72: 1091-1107.
4- Chassot, A., and Richner, W. 2002. Root characteristics and phosphorus uptake of maize seedling in a bilayered soil. Agronomy Journal 94: 118-127.
5- Chukan, R. 2012. Maize and maize properties. Publication of Agricultural Education 427 pp. (In Persian)
6- Das, M., Singh, B.P., and Prasad, R.N. 1991. Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to phosphorus-enriched manures grown in P-deficient Alfisols on terracel land in Meghalaya. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science 61(6): 383-388.
7- Eghbal, B., Binford, T.F., Balyonspregor, D.D., and Anderson, F.D. 1995. Maize temporal yield variability under long term manure and fertilizer application. Fractal Analysis Soil Science, Society American Journal 59: 1360-1364.
8- Fageria, N.K. 2007. Green manuring in crop Production. Journal of Plant Nutrition 30: 691-719.
9- Ghanbari, A., Ahmadian, A., and Galavi, M. 2007. The effects of irrigation times and animal manure on yield and yield component of cumin (Cuminum Ciminum). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 3(2): 255-262. (In Persian with English Summary)
10- Ghushchi, A., Jurablu, A., Silespur, M., and Hadi, H. 2010. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil characteristics and forage corn. Journal of Agroecology 2(3): 428-436. (In Persian with English Summary)
11- Hamzei, J., and Sayedi, A. 2014. Reaction of bulk density, agronomy characteristics and barley yield in different tillage method in Hamadan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Soil and Water Science 18(70):147-156.
12- Hay, R.K.M., and Walker, A.J. 1998. An introduction to the physiology of crop yield. John Willey Sons Inc., Publication, New York.
13- Kinhara, J., Bationo, A., and Mugndi, D.N. 2011. Conservation tillage, local organic resources and nitrogen fertilizer combinations affect maize productivity, soil structure and nutrient balances in semi-arid Kenya. Nutrient Cycle Agroecosyst 155-167.
14- Laure, D.A. 1985. Limitation fertilizer. p. 409-432. In West Journal Jewell. Energy Agriculture and waste Managment process. Agriculture waste manager conferance. Ann Arbor-science, Ann Arbor. MI.
15- Majidian, M., Ghalavand, A., Karimiyan, N., and Kamkarehaghighi, H. 2009. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, animal manure and irrigation on yield and yield components of maize. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 1(2): 67-85. (In Persian with English Summary)
16- Manxiang, H., Tao, L., Lingqing, W., and Chenghu, Z. 2015. Effects of notillage systems on soil physical properties, and carbon sequestration under long-term wheat- maize double cropping systems. Catena 128: 195-202.
17- Mazaheri, D., and Majnunehusseini, N. 2007. Basic principles of agronomi. 5th Edition. Tehran University Press 320 pp. (In Persian)
18- Mentler, A., Partaj, T., Strauss, P., Souman, H., and Blum, W.E. 2002. Effect of locally available organic manure on maize yield in guinea. West Africa. Research paper. 17th wess. Thailand 85-91.
19- Mir, M. 2014. Effect of green manure on soil physical properties, yield and yield components of sesame in Sistan region. MSc thesis, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
20- Mojab Ghasrodshty, A., Belluchi, H.R., and Yadvy, A.R. 2011. Effect of compost and nitrogen on grain yield, forage productivity and some morphological traits of sweet corn. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 4(1): 1-16. (In Persian with English Summary)
21- Momeni, A., Bahmanyar, M.A., and Pirdashti, H. 2014. Effect of different application of green manures, animal and biological fertilizers on dynamics of N in the soil, leaves and maize. Journal of Agricultural Ecology 6(3): 595-606.
22- Nuralvandy, T., Ardekani, M.R., Kashani, H., Vazan, S., and Sadeghi Shoa, M. 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of sweet corn. Agronomy Journal 7(3): 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary)
23- Obi, M.E., and Ebo, P.O. 1995. The effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil physical properties and maize production in a severely degraded sandy soil in southern Nigeria. Bioresearch Technology 51: 117-123.
24- Omidi, H., Tahmasebi Sarvestani, Z., and Ghalavand, A. 2006. Assessment of tillage patterns, row spacing and planting date on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Rapeseed. PhD thesis Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University 131-132. (In Persian)
25- Parmar, D.K., and Sharma, T.R. 1998. Integrated nutrient supply system for DppG8, Vegetable Pealpisum sativum in dry temperature zone of Himachol Paradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 68: 247-253.
26- Pimentel, D. 1993. Economics and energies of organic and conventional farming. Journal of Agricultural Ethics 6: 53-60.
27- Rezvantalab, N., Pirdashti, H., Bahmanyar, M.A., and Abassian, A. 2009. Study on corn yield response to different types and amounts of organic and chemical fertilizers, Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 15(5): 1-10.
28- Ruijun, Q., Peter, S., and Walter, R. 2006. Impact of tillage on maize rooting in a cambisol and luvisol in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 85: 50-61.
29- Sakurai, B., and Kokhtar, L.O. 2005. Effect of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the soil fertility and productivity of plant Archives of Agronomy and soil science 51: 325- 334.
30- Sarrantonio, M., and Scott, T.W. 1988. Tillage effects on availability of nitrogen to corn following winter green manure crop. Soil Science Society American Journal 52: 1661-1668.
31- Scherer, E.E., Agostini, V.J., Wildner, L.P., Nadal, R., Sivestro, M., and Sorrenson, W.J. 1991. Poultry manure and nitrogen for maize on small farms. Agropecuaria Catarinense 4: 8-11.
32- Tajbakhsh, M., Hassanzadeh Ghurttape, H., and Darvishzadeh, B. 2005. Green manures in sustainable agriculture. Printing 1, Publishing Jihad Uromia University 215 pp. (In Persian).
33- Talgre, L., Lauringson, E., Roostalu, H., and Astover, A. 2009. The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat. Agronomy Research 7(1): 125-132.
34- Tiscareno, M., Baez Gonzales, A.D., Velasquez Valle, M., Potte, K.N., Stone, J.J., Tapia Vargas, M., and Claveran Alonso, R. 1999. Agricultural research for watershed restoration in central Mexico. Journal Soil Water Conservation 54: 686-692.
35- Toor, G.S., and Bahl, G.S. 1997. Effect of salitory and integrated use of poultry manure and fertilizer phosphorus on the dynamics of P availability in different soils. Bioresource Technology 62: 25-28.
36- Uharts, A., and Andrade, F.H. 1995. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. II. Effects on crop carbon – nitrogen interaction effects on kernel number and grain yield. Crop Science 35: 1384-1389.
37- Wilhelm, W.W., Bouzerzour, H., and Power, J.F. 1989. Soil disturbance residue management effect on winter wheat growth and yield. Agronomy Journal 81: 581-588.
38- Yazdani, M., Pyrdashty, H., Ismaili, M.H., and Bahmanyar, M.H. 2009. The effect of optimizing the use of chemical fertilizers, organic and biologic on yield and yield components of maize (KSC 604). Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran p. 42. (In Persian)