ارزیابی تأثیر متقابل منبع تغذیه ای و تنوع گیاهان زراعی بر کارآیی مصرف نهاده ها در الگوهای مختلف کشت

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تنوع گیاهی و نوع منبع تغذیه ای بر کارآیی مصرف آب و عناصر غذایی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 1385-1384 و 1386-1385 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی دو منبع کود دامی و کود شیمیایی در کرت های اصلی و کشت مخلوط سه واریته سویا (Glycine max L.) (ویلیامز، سحر و گرگان 3)، کشت مخلوط سه گونه ارزن (ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaseum L.)، مرواریدی (Pennisetum glaucum L.) و دم روباهی (Setaria italic L.)، کشت مخلوط ارزن معمولی- سویا- کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) و کشت مخلوط ارزن- کنجد- شنبلیله(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)-زنیان(Trachyspermum ammi L.) همراه با تک کشتی هر یک از گیاهان مورد بررسی در کرت های فرعی را شامل می شد. نتایج نشان داد که الگوهای مختلف کشت از نظر کارآیی مصرف آب اختلاف معنی داری داشتند. در سال زراعی اول، در بین کشت های مخلوط مورد بررسی، مخلوط سه گونه ارزن و مخلوط ارزن، سویا و کنجد، دارای بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب برحسب عملکرد بیولوژیکی بودند. در سال زراعی دوم در بین الگوهای مخلوط مورد بررسی، کشت مخلوط سه گونه ارزن بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب را برحسب عملکرد بیولوژیکی داشت. برترین الگوی مخلوط از نظر میزان نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم موجود در بافت گیاهی در واحد سطح، مخلوط سه واریته سویا و مخلوط ارزن، سویا و کنجد بود. در سال زراعی اول، در بین کشت های مخلوط مورد بررسی، کشت مخلوط سه واریته سویا بیشترین کارآیی مصرف عناصر غذایی را داشت. در سال زراعی دوم، در بین الگوهای مخلوط، کشت مخلوط سه واریته سویا، مخلوط ارزن، سویا و کنجد و مخلوط ارزن، کنجد، شنبلیله و زنیان از نظر کارآیی مصرف عناصر غذایی، اختلاف معنی داری با هم نداشته و برتر از مخلوط سه گونه ارزن بودند. در هر دو سال زراعی، کشت های مخلوط ارزن، سویا و کنجد و مخلوط ارزن، کنجد، شنبلیله و زنیان دارای کارآیی جذب نیتروژن و فسفر بالایی بوده و اختلاف معنی داری با هم نداشتند. از نظر کارآیی جذب پتاسیم نیز مخلوط سه گونه ارزن، سویا و کنجد بهتر از دیگر کشت های مخلوط عمل کرد. در این مطالعه نوع منبع تغذیه ای بر کارآیی مصرف آب و عناصر غذایی تأثیر معنی داری نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

nteraction of nutrient resource and crop diversity on resource use efficiency in different cropping systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Koocheki
  • P rezvani moghaddam
  • M nasiri mahallati
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Conventional operations in fields, soil and water management are not efficient and loss of and damage to the environment are considerable (Lal, 2000). Crop diversity and understanding the complex interactions between environmental and socioeconomic factors are approaches to make better use of limited resources (Tengberg et al., 1998). The most diverse ecosystems have a higher production under environment stress conditions compared with ecosystems with low diversity due to the better efficiency in the use of water, radiation and nutrients (Hulugalle & al, 1986; Walker & Ogindo, 2003).

Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effects of crop diversity and nutrient source on resource use efficiency, a split plot experiment was conducted based on complete randomized blocks with 3 replications at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2006 and 2007. The treatments included manure and chemical fertilizers as the main plots and intercropping of 3 soybean varieties (Williams, Sahar and Gorgan3), intercropping of 3 Millet species (common millet, foxtail millet and pearl millet), intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame (Sesamum indicum) and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) as sub plots.

Results and Discussion
The results indicated that in the first year, intercropping of 3 Millet species and intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame showed the highest water use efficiency (WUE) based on biological yield. In the second year, intercropping of 3 millet species showed the highest WUE based on biological yield. The highest concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in crop tissues were observed in intercropping of 3 soybean varieties and intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame. In the first year, intercropping of 3 soybean varieties showed the highest nutrient use efficiency (NUE). In the second year, intercropping of 3 soybean varieties, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest NUE. In the two years, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus absorption efficiency (NAE). Intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame showed the highest potassium uptake efficiency. In this study, nutrient resource did not have a significant effect on water and nutrient use efficiency.
The research results have indicated that often nitrogen amount and use efficiency in legume and non legume intercropping were higher than monocultures. This indicates the synergist effect in the intercroppings (Vandermeer, 1989; Szumigalski & Van Acker, 2006). In general, the different benefits of diversity and better use of available inputs are obtained by increasing the diversity of crops and proper selection of plants cultivated in intercropping systems and crop rotations in monoculture systems

Acknowledgments
This research (044 p) was funded by the Vice Chancellor for Research of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Efficiency
  • Intercropping
  • Monoculture
  • Nutrient
  • Use efficiency
  • Water
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