اثرات کاربرد پلیمر سوپرجاذب رطوبت در خاک و محلول‌پاشی اسید هیومیک روی برخی ویژگی‌های اگروفیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد کمی و کیفی چغندرقند(Beta vulgaris L.) در شرایط مشهد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تنش خشکی محدود کننده‌ترین عامل در تولید محصولات زراعی در سرار جهان به‌ شمار می‌رود. به منظور ارزیابی تأثیر محلول‌پاشی اسید هیومیک و کاربرد هیدروژل سوپر جاذب رطوبت بر کمیت و کیفیت چغندر قند(Beta vulgaris L.) ، آزمایشی به ‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده نواری (استریپ اسپلیت پلات) بر پایه‌ طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی91-1390 اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: استفاده از سوپر جاذب رطوبت و عدم استفاده از سوپر جاذب رطوبت به عنوان کرت اصلی، دو دور آبیاری به ترتیب 7 و 10 روزه به عنوان عامل کرت فرعی و استفاده و عدم استفاده از اسید هیومیک به عنوان عامل کرت نواری. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربرد سوپرجاذب رطوبت نسبت به عدم کاربرد آن، تأثیر معنی داری بر شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد قند ناخالص و عدد کلروفیل‌متر داشت، به طوری‌که بیشترین مقادیر این صفات (به ترتیب با 4/3، 7/4 تن در هکتار و 2/46) را سبب شدند. محلول‌ پاشیاسید هیومیک سبب بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (4/3) و عدد کلروفیل ‌متر(1/45) شد که با دیگر تیمارها، تفاوت معنی‌دار داشت. دور آبیاری هفت روز، بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (8/3) و عملکرد غده (9/24 تن در هکتار) را به دنبال داشت. بیشترین عدد کلروفیل‌متر (9/49) در نتیجه‌ی کاربرد سوپر جاذب و محلول‌پاشی اسید ‌هیومیک و دور آبیاری هفت روز حاصل شد. عملکرد ماده‌ی خشک و تعداد برگ در بوته با عملکرد غده، عملکرد قند ناخالص و قرائت اسپد، همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار (01/0p≤) نشان دادند. بررسی ضرایب همبستگی محاسبه شده بین صفات مختلف نشان داد که به ترتیب بین عملکرد ماده‌ خشک و شاخص سطح برگ، و بین عملکرد ماده‌ی خشک و عملکرد قند ناخالص همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار وجود داشت. این نتایج تأکید می‌کنند که هر عاملی که شاخص سطح برگ را افزایش دهد، سبب افزایش عملکرد ماده‌ خشک و در نتیجه افزایش عملکرد قند ناخالص خواهد شد. همچنین، بین عملکرد ماده‌ خشک و قرائت کلروفیل‌متر و بین قرائت کلروفیل‌متر و عملکرد غده، همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار وجود داشت. برآورد میزان قند ناخالص بر اساس روش رگرسیون چند متغیره نشان داد که این صفت تحت تأثیر متغیر هایی مثل عیار قند، عملکرد غده و عدد کلروفیل‌متر قرار دارد (**87/0r=). به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که کاربرد سوپر جاذب می تواند سبب افزایش ظرفیت نگهداری آب در خاک و در نتیجه سبب ثبات تولید در شرایط تنش خشکی شود. همچنین، محلول پاشی اسید‌هیومیک، علاوه بر حفظ سلامت محیط زیست، می‌تواند سبب افزایش تولید اقتصادی چغندر قند شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of super absorbent polymer application into soil and humic acid foliar application on some agrophysiological criteria and quantitative and qualitative yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under Mashhad conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Jahan 1
  • M Nassiri Mahallati 1
  • F Ranjbar 1
  • M Aryaee 2
  • N Kamayestani 1
چکیده [English]

Drought stress is the most limiting factor of agricultural production through the world. To evaluate the effect of super absorbent and humic acid to reduce drought stress in sugar beet production, a strip split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Field of Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2010-2011. The main plot factor was application and no application of super absorbent polymer and the sub plot factor was foliar application and no application of humic acid. Two irrigation intervals (7 and 10 days) assigned to strip plots. The results showed that super absorbent application comparing to no super absorbent affected leaf area index (LAI), sugar gross yield (SGY) and SPAD readings significantly, as the highest amount for this traits were 3.4, 4.7 t ha-1 and 46.2, respectively. Humic acid foliar application resulted to the highest LAI (3.4) and SPAD reading (45.1) which significantly were different with other treatments. Irrigation interval of 7 days resulted to the highest LAI (3.8) and root yield (24.9 t ha-1). The highest SPAD reading (49.9) resulted from super absorbent and humic acid application with 7 days interval irrigation interaction. Dry matter yield (DM) and leaf number per plant showed a positive and significant correlation (p≤0.01) with tuber yield (TY), SGY and SPAD readings. The strongest correlation coefficients were obtained for DM and LAI, and between DM and SGY. This positive and significant correlation emphasis that any factor increasing LAI will increase DM and thereby, SGY. The positive and significant correlations were observed between DM and SPAD readings, and between SPAD readings and TY. SGY estimation model predicted that SGY was determined by some variables such as TY, SP and SPAD reading. In general, these results indicate super absorbent application could increase soil water holding capacity and consequently stabilize production under dry stress conditions. In addition, humic acid application could increase economic sugar beet production, moreover maintaining environmental health issues

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar application
  • water absorbent hydrogel
  • Sugar percentage
  • SPAD reading
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