اثرات نحوه تغذیه نیتروژنی گیاه مادری و تلقیح باکتریایی بذور حاصله بر بهبود تحمل به شوری گندم در مرحله جوانهزنی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد

چکیده

تنش شوری یکی از عوامل مهم کاهش رشد و عملکرد محصولات زراعی در ایران می‌باشد، از این رو شناخت راهکارهای مناسب جهت کاهش اثرات منفی آن دارای اهمیت است. در این راستا آزمایشی به منظور مطالعه اثرات تغذیه نیتروژنی گیاه پایه مادری و تلقیح باکتریایی بذور حاصله توسط کودهای زیستی، بر بهبود مقاومت به شوری گندم (Triticum aestivum L.cv sayonz) در مرحله جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه در آزمایشگاه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1388 به صورت فاکتوریل بر مبنای طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه شامل سطوح مختلف نیتروژن مصرفی بر روی گیاه مادری در مزرعه (شامل سطوح صفر، 55، 110 و 165 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار)، تلقیح بذور حاصله توسط کودهای زیستی (نیتراژین، بیوفسفر و عدم تلقیح) و سطوح مختلف تنش شوری (صفر، 4/0-، 8/0- و 2/1- مگاپاسکال) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تلقیح بذر توسط کودهای زیستی اثرات مثبتی بر شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی داشت، به طوری که بیشترین تعداد ریشه در گیاهچه (39/2 عدد)، طول ریشه‌چه (34/5 سانتی‌متر) و طول ساقه‌چه (56/3 سانتی‌متر) در تیمار تلقیح بذر توسط کود زیستی نیتراژین و کمترین مقدار این صفات در شاهد مشاهده گردید. همچنین کمترین مقدار متوسط زمان جوانه زنی در تیمار تلقیح بذر توسط بیوفسفر (89/2 روز) و بیشترین مقدار آن در شاهد (42/3 روز) به دست آمد. در بین سطوح نیتروژن مصرفی حداکثر مقدار فاکتورهای جوانه‌زنی در تیمارهای 55 و 110 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به دست آمد، به طوری که بیشترین سرعت جوانه‌زنی (59/2 بر روز)، تعداد ریشه‌چه در هر گیاهچه (34/2 عدد)، طول ریشه‌چه (75/5 سانتی‌متر) و متوسط وزن ریشه‌چه (0022/0 گرم) در بذور حاصل از تیمار کاربرد 55 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار بر روی گیاه مادری به دست آمد. همچنین با افزایش شدت تنش شوری تمامی فاکتورهای مربوط به جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه کاهش پیدا کرد. به طور کلی، نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که مصرف 55 تا 110 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار همراه با تلقیح باکتریایی بذور حاصله توسط کودهای زیستی نیتراژین و بیوفسفر می‌تواند باعث بهبود فاکتورهای جوانه زنی گندم تحت شرایط تنش شوری گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of nutritional management of mother plant and seed priming by biofertilizers on improve salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Sayonz at germination period.

نویسندگان [English]

  • P Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • M.B Amiri 3
  • M Aghhavani-Shajari 2
  • R Yazdani-Biuki 2
چکیده [English]

Salinity is one of the important factors that reduce the growth and yield of crops in Iran; however, determining appropriate methods for reducing its negative effects is important. In order to study the effects of nutritional condition of mother plant and bacterial biofertilizers seed priming on germination indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in salinity condition, an experiment was conducted during 2009 at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. This experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Studied factors consisted of: four levels of nitrogen fertilizer applied on mother plant in field (0, 55, 110 and165 Nitrogen kg.ha-1), seed priming by three types of biofertilizers (Nitrajin, Biophosphouros and distillated water) and four levels of salinity stress (0, -0.4, -0.8 and -1.2 MPa). Results indicated that the seed priming with biofertilizers had a positive effect on germination indices of wheat. The maximum radicle number per seedling (2.39), radical length (5.34 cm) and plumule length (3.56 cm) were observed in seed primed by Nitrajin biofertilizer and the minimum of those characteristics were shown in control. In addition, the lowest and highest mean germination time were obtained in seed priming by Biophosphouros (2.89 day) and control (3.42 day), respectively. The highest germination indices were obtained at 55 and 110 kg.ha-1 Nitrogen. The maximum germination rate (2.59.day-1), number of radicle per seedling (2.34), radical length (5.75 cm) and mean weight of radical (0.0022 g) were obtained in seeds that were treated by 55 kg.ha-1 nitrogen on mother plant. So, all factors related to germination and growth seedling were decreased by increasing salinity stress. Over all, results indicated that use of 55-110 kg.ha-1 nitrogen with bacterial biofertilizers seed priming can improve germination indices under salinity stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Germination percentage
  • Germination rate
  • Plumule
  • Radical
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