اثرات کاربرد آب شور و معمولی توأم با کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و انباشت یون‌های معدنی در زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

تحمل شوری یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر تولید محصولات کشاورزی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌باشد. به منظور مطالعه اثرات آب شور و معمولی توأم با کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 91-1390 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی شامل رژیم آبیاری در دو سطح (آب معمولی و آب شور طبیعی با هدایت الکتریکی 180/4 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) و عامل فرعی تیمارهای منفرد و تلفیقی کود شیمیایی کامل و کود دامی و تیمار شاهد بود. نتایج مشخص نمود با افزایش نمک‌های محلول در آب آبیاری تا محدوده 180/4 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد دانه در چتر و بوته و عملکرد دانه کاهش یافت اما بر درصد و عملکرد اسانس افزوده شد. همچنین افزایش جذب یون سدیم منجر به کاهش غلظت پتاسیم، فسفر، کلسیم و منیزیم در دانه گردید.از میان تیمارهای مختلف کودی، کاربرد جداگانه کودهای معدنی و آلی مزیت چندانی نداشته، بلکه کاربرد توأمان کود شیمیایی و دامی بر بهبود اغلب صفات مورد مطالعه اثربخش‌تر بود. برهمکنش نوع آب و نوع کود بر عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، ارتفاع بوته، درصد اسانس و محتوای سدیم دانه معنی‌دار بود. در مجموع، به‌منظور کاهش آلودگی‌های ناشی از کودهای شیمیایی و جبران کمبود مواد آلی خاک در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک کاربرد توأم کود آلی و معدنی (کود شیمیایی به نسبت 40:20:15 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تلفیق با 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی) در منطقه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of saline and fresh water application with organic and chemical fertilizers on some quantitative characters and ion accumulation in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Bardel
  • A. Ghanbari
  • M. Khajeh
University of Zabol
چکیده [English]

Salinity tolerance is one of the most important affecting factors on agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to study the effects of saline and fresh water irrigation with application of organic and NPK fertilizers on cumin, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was carried out with three replications during 2011 and 2012, at the research farm of Zabol University. Main factor was irrigation regimes (fresh water, and saline water EC: 4.180 dS.m-1) and the sub factor were including individual and combining treatments of manure and NPK fertilizer and control. Results indicated that increasing soluble salts in water irrigation until 4.180 dS.m-1 range, plant height, seed weight, and number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and plant, and yield decreased but the percentage and yield of essence was increased. Increasing the concentration of sodium ions lead to decrease concentrations of potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium of cumin seed. Among the different fertilizer treatments, separate application of organic and chemical fertilizers have little advantage, but integrated chemical fertilizer and manure was more effective to improve the most investigated characters. Interaction of water and fertilizer regimes was significant on yield, seed weight, plant height, oil percentage and sodium content. In general, in order to reduce pollution of chemical fertilizers and the compensation lack of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid areas, NPK fertilizer (40:20:15 kg.ha-1 ratio with 20 t.ha-1 manure) in area is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • EC
  • Medicinal plant
  • Mineral nutrients
  • Organic and chemical fertilizer
  • Yield and yield components
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