مطالعه اثر منابع کودی نیتروژن بر عملکرد علوفه شبدر برسیم (L. Trifolium alexandrinum) در کشت مخلوط افزایشی با ریحان (L. Ocimum basilicum) در شرایط اقلیمی کرج

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه خاکشناسی کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران


این آزمایش به منظور بررسی واکنش کشت مخلوط افزایشی شبدر برسیم (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) و ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) به سیستم‌های کوددهی در مزرعه آموزشی- پژوهشی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران در سال زراعی1390 اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد.کرت‌های اصلی دربرگیرنده نوع کود در چهار سطح (شاهد، 100% کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، کود زیستی + 50% کود نیتروژن و کود زیستی) و کرت‌های فرعی دربرگیرنده تیمارهای کشت خالص ریحان با وجین، کشت خالص ریحان بدون وجین، کشت خالص شبدر با وجین، کشت خالص شبدر بدون وجین، کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم100% + 100% ریحان، کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم100% + 75% ریحان، کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم 100% + 50% ریحان، کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم 100% + 25% ریحان بودند. کود زیستی مورد استفاده شامل ازتوباکتر (Azotobacter sp.) + آزوسپیریلوم (Azosperilium sp.) + میکوریزا (Mycorrhiza sp.) + باسیلوس (Bacillus sp.) و ریزوبیوم (Rhizobium trefoli) بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد ریحان (4223 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار کشت خالص ریحان با وجین در سطح کود تلفیقی و بیشترین عملکرد شبدر (4833 کیلو‌گرم در هکتار) در تیمار کشت خالص شبدر با وجین در سطح کود شیمیایی 100% بدست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه کل ریحان + شبدر در دو چین (3/5983 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم + 75% ریحان و کشت‌ مخلوط شبدر برسیم + 50% ریحان در سطح کود تلفیقی نیتروژن و کمترین مقدار آن (6/1927 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار کشت خالص شبدر برسیم بدون وجین در سطح تیمار کود زیستی به دست آمد. محاسبه و ارزیابی نسبت برابری زمین و میزان رقابت نشان داد که سیستم کشت شبدر برسیم + 75% ریحان و کشت مخلوط شبدر برسیم + 50% ریحان نسبت به سایر تیمار‌های کاشت برتری داشت، که این مسئله برتری کشت مخلوط را نسبت به کشت خالص نشان داد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش به نظر می‌رسد که استفاده از کودهای تلفیقی (کود زیستی+ 50% کود شیمیایی نیتروژن) می‌تواند جایگزین مناسبی برای کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different N fertilizer sources on forage yield of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in an additive intercropping system with basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in Karaj climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Safikhani 1
  • Mohammad Reza Chaichi 1
  • Ahmad Ali Poor-Babaei 2
1 Agronomy Department, Tehran University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Soil Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of different N fertilizer on berseem forage in an intercropping with basil, this experiment was conducted in Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran during growing season 2011. Experimental treatments were arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Different fertilizers consisted of control (no N fertilizer), 100% chemical fertilizer, biological fertilizer, and integrated fertilizer (biological fertilizer + 50% N fertilizer) were assigned to the main plots while different additive intercropping patterns of basil mono cropping (weed free), basil mono cropping (weed infested), berseem clover mono cropping (weed free), berseem clover mono cropping (weed contaminated), berseem clover + %25 basil, berseem clover + %50 basil, berseem clover + %75 basil, berseem clover + %100 basil were assigned to the sub plots. The biological fertilizer comprised of Rhizobium (Rhizobium trefoli) + Azotobacter (Azotobacter sp.) + Azosprilium (Azosprilium sp.) + Bacillus (Bacillus sp.) + Mycorrihza (Mycorrihza sp.). The results showed that the highest basil forage yield (two harvests) (4223 kg.ha-1) was obtained from basil mono cropping (weed free) treatment when received integrated fertilizer. The highest forage yield (4833 kg.ha-1) for berseem clover was obtained from clover mono cropping (weed free) at 100% chemical fertilizing treatment. The highest total forage yield (berseem clover + basil) (5983 kg.ha-1) was obtained from berseem clover + %50 basil and berseem clover + %75 basil at integrated N fertilizer treatment. The best Land Equivalent Ratio and Relative Competition ratio were obtained at berseem clover + %75 basil and berseem clover + %100 basil treatments. Our results suggested that integrated fertilizer could be considered as the best fertilizing system to substitute for chemical N fertilizer (Urea) in additive intercropping of berseem clover and basil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizer
  • Competition intensity
  • Integrated fertilizer
  • Medicinal forage
  • Relative Yield Total
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