تأثیر رژیم آبیاری و عمق کاشت بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد گیاه دارویی و صنعتی موسیر (Allium altissimum Regel.) در شرایط آب و هوایی مشهد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد


موسیر (Allium altissimum Regel.) گیاهی دارویی و صنعتی، چندساله، دارای غده زیرزمینی و یکی از مهم‌ترین گونه‌های دارویی و صنعتی جنس آلیوم در ایران می‌باشد که به صورت خودرو و طبیعی در مناطق مرتفع با اقلیم خیلی سرد تا نیمه سرد رشد می‌کند. با توجه به خودرو بودن این گیاه و احتمال مواجه شدن با تنش کمبود آب در سال های مختلف و تأثیر بر عملکرد آن، تعیین نیاز آبی گیاه از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. بدین جهت به منظور بررسی اثرات رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری و عمق کاشت، این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل پنج سطح آبیاری: بدون آبیاری(1I)، آبیاری پس از 5±80 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر(I2)، آبیاری پس از 5±60 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر(I3)، آبیاری پس از 5±40 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر (I4) و آبیاری پس از 5±20 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر(I5، شاهد) و دو سطح عمق کاشت پنج سانتیمتر (D1) و 10 سانتیمتر (D2) بودند. نتایج نشان داد افزایش فواصل آبیاری باعث کاهش وزن خشک پیاز، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و ارتفاع ساقه گل-دهنده شد. همچنین عمق کاشت تأثیر معنی داری بر روی صفات مورد مطالعه نداشت. اثرات متقابل سطوح آبیاری و عمق کاشت نیز باعث کاهش ارتفاع ساقه گل دهنده، عملکرد خشک پیاز و شاخص برداشت شد. همچنین اثر متقابل آبیاری و عمق کاشت تأثیر معنی داری در تغییرات سطح برگ و سرعت رشد محصول داشت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد گیاه موسیر به میزان آب در دسترس واکنش مثبت نشان می‌دهد، ولی عمق کاشت تا 10 سانتی متر تأثیری بر عملکرد پیاز آن ندارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of irrigation regime and sowing depth on yield and yield components of Persian shallot (Allium altissimum Regel.) in Mashhad climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Sharif Rohani
  • M. Kafi
  • A. Nezami
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Shallot (Allium altissimum Regel.) is a medicinal, industrial and perennial plant that has underground tubers. It is one of the most important Allium species in Iran, which normally grows in semi-cold to very cold highlands. Because of being a wild plant, shallot is encounter with water deficit during its growth season. Therefore evaluation of water requirement of shallot is important. In order to assess the effects of different irrigation regimes and planting depth, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, faculty of Agriculture. Treatments were five irrigation levels: no irrigation (I1), irrigation after 80±5 mm evaporation from pan evaporation (I2), irrigation after 60±5 mm evaporation from pan evaporation (I3), irrigation after 40±5 mm evaporation from pan evaporation (I4) and irrigation after 20±5 mm evaporation from pan evaporation (I5, control) and two levels of sowing depth of 5 cm (D1) and 10 cm (D2). Results showed that dry bulb yield, biological yield, harvest index and plant height were reduced by increasing irrigation intervals. Sowing depth had no significant effect on the parameters studied. Also the interaction between irrigation levels and sowing depth reduced plant height, dry bulb yield and harvest index. The interaction between irrigation and sowing depth was significant in leaf area index and crop growth rate. Shallot reacts to the amount of available water positively, but sowing depth of 10 cm has no effect on the bulb.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop Growth Rate
  • Dry weight of bulb
  • Harvest index
  • Plant height
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