اثرات سطوح آب و کود نیتروژن بر کارآیی مصرف و بهره وری آب در سه گیاه ذرت (Zea mays L.)، چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) و کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فردوسی مشهد

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی مشهد

چکیده

به دلیل محدودیت های موجود در نهاده های کشاورزی به ویژه آب، استفاده بهینه از منابع آب و نیتروژن از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. به-منظور بررسی سطوح آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر کار آیی و بهره وری مصرف آب در سه گیاه چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.)، ذرت (Zea mays L.) و کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1389-1388 با سه تکرار به صورت کرت های خردشده نواری در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. کرت های اصلی این آزمایش شامل سه گونه چغندرقند، ذرت و کنجد، کرت های فرعی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی هر یک از گونه ها) و کرت های نواری شامل چهار سطح نیتروژن خالص (صفر، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. بر اساس نتایج، بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب به ترتیب در ذرت، چغندرقند و کنجد معادل 4/2، 8/1 و 5/1 کیلوگرم ماده خشک بر متر مکعب آب حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین بهره وری مصرف آب در گیاه چغندرقند معادل4200 واحد و پس از آن در کنجد و ذرت هرکدام به ترتیب 2123 و 1768 ریال بر متر مکعب آب آبیاری به دست آمد. اثر متقابل آب و نیتروژن بر کارآیی و بهره وری مصرف آب در این سه گونه گیاهی معنی دار بود. با کاهش 25 درصد نیاز آبی در این سه گونه گیاهی، تنها 19 درصد کاهش در WUE* (کارآیی مصرف آب اقتصادی) حاصل شد. با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن، بهره وری آب در سه گونه زراعی کاهش یافت. به نظر می رسد که مصرف نیتروژن بالا نمی تواند در کاهش اثرات سوء تنش خشکی موثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on productivity and efficiency in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Nassiri Mahallati 1
  • A. Koocheki 1
  • A. Zare Feize Abadi 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Agriculture research station of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Optimum uses of water and nitrogen resources are the most important factors in agricultural systems due to limitations of agricultural inputs especially water. In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on efficiency and productivity of water consumption in three crop (sugar beet, corn and sesame) an experiment was carried out as strip split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008-2009 .The main, sub and strip factors were three species (sugar beet, corn and sesame), three irrigation levels (100, 75 and 50% of water requirement of each crop) and four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1), respectively. The result showed that the highest water use efficiency was observed as 2.4, 1.8 and 1.5 kg DM.m-3 in corn, sugar beet and sesame, respectively. The maximum water use productivity was obtained for sugar beet (4200 Rails.m-3), sesame (2123 Rails.m-3) and then for corn (1768 Rails.m-3). Interaction effect between water and nitrogen was significant on water use efficiency and productivity for all three studied crops. Water use efficiency declined up to 19% by decreasing 25% of water requirement. Water use productivity decreased in all three studied crops by increasing nitrogen consumption. It seems that high nitrogen level could not be affect on reducing drought stress effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • economic efficiency
  • Harvest index
  • water requirement
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