اثر آبیاری محدود بر رشد و عملکرد ژنوتیپ های گلرنگ بهاره (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در شرایط بیرجند

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

کمبود دانه های روغنی و حجم بالای واردات روغن در ایران از یک سو و محدودیت منابع آبی در سر راه تولید بسیاری از دانه های روغنی از سوی دیگر، ضرورت شناسایی گونه ها و ارقام سازگار به این شرایط پر تنش و تعیین حساسترین مراحل رشدگیاه به تنش را آشکار می سازد. لذا به منظور بررسی واکنش ژنوتیپ های گلرنگ بهاره (Carthamus tinctorius L.) به قطع آبیاری در مراحل مختلف رشد زایشی و نیز تعیین حساسترین مرحله رشد این ژنوتیپ ها به محدودیت آبی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی و در چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال 87 -1386 انجام شد. کرت های اصلی شامل چهار سطح قطع آبیاری (آبیاری کامل، آبیاری تا مرحله دانه بندی، آبیاری تا مرحله گلدهی و آبیاری تا مرحله تکمه دهی) و کرت های فرعی، سه رقم گلرنگ بهاره (محلی اصفهان، اصفهان 28 و IL111) بود. نتایج نشان داد، افزایش مدت زمان قطع آبیاری موجب زودرسی، کاهش طول دوره رشد، میزان تجمع ماده خشک، شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول و عملکرد دانه در هر سه ژنوتیپ شد و کاهش این پارامترها در رقم محلی اصفهان نسبت به دو رقم دیگر کمترین میزان بود. به طور کلی ژنوتیپ محلی اصفهان به دلیل بومی بودن، خوپذیری بیشتری به شرایط محدودیت آبی در خراسان جنوبی داشت و هر چه دیرتر در طی فصل رشد با تنش خشکی مواجه شود، عملکرد آن کمتر تحت تاثیر قرار می گیرد. در نهایت مشخص گردید که مرحله تکمه دهی در گلرنگ بسیار حساس به کمبود آب می باشد و وقوع تنش در این دوره منجر به کاهش شدید دوره رشد، شاخص های رشدی و عملکرد دانه می شود بنابراین تأمین آب در دوره تکمه دهی گلرنگ اهمیت ویژه ای در بهبود عملکرد آن دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of spring safflowers (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes in Birjand

نویسندگان [English]

  • B.E. Moosavifar
  • M.A. Behdani
  • M. Jami Alahmadi
  • M.S. Hosaini Bojd
چکیده [English]

Deficit of oil seeds and high volume of oil imports in Iran, and limitation of water sources against production of many oil seed crops, demonstrate the importance of detection tolerant species and cultivars for stressful conditions and their most sensitive growth stages to saline stress. In order to study response of spring safflowers (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes to disruption irrigation in different reproductive growth stages and also to determine their most sensitive growth stage to stress induced by deficit irrigation, an experiment was conducted in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, Iran during 2007-2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation), irrigation until grain filling stage, irrigation until flowering, and irrigation until heading-bud) stages; and three cultivars (Mahali Isfahan, Isfahan28 and IL111) were arranged in main plots and subplots, respectively. The results showed that increasing distance between irrigations caused early maturation, reduce of growth duration, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, crop growth rate and grain yield in all genotypes and detection in these parameters in Mahali Isfahan was the lost amount. Overall, it seems that local genotype (Mahali Isfahan) had higher adaptability to deficit water in southern Khorasan conditions due to its nativeness. Finally, it was determined that heading-bud stage of safflower was very sensitive to water deficit, and water limitation at this stage, could considerably decrease growth duration, growth indices and grain yield. Thus, watering at heading-bud stage is the most important parameter for improving safflower grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth indices
  • grain yield
  • Phonology stages
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