اثرات مدیریت حاصلخیزی و حفاظتی خاک در تناوب های زراعی مختلف بر خصوصیات بانک بذر در یک نظام ارگانیک

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر مدیریت های متفاوت تناوبی، حاصلخیزی و حفاظتی خاک بر روی خصوصیات بانک بذر آزمایشی بلندمدت (در طی 2009-2005) در گلخانه های تحقیقاتی کلوز هاوس بر روی خاک پنجمین سال تناوبی ارگانیک دارای چهار تکرار در حال اجرا در مزرعه تحقیقاتی نافرتون دانشگاه نیوکاسل بریتانیا انجام شد. تناوب با مخلوط شبدر (Trifollium sp.)/علف چمنی (Poa spp.) برای دو سال اول آغاز گردید و با گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) برای سال سوم ادامه یافت. در سال چهارم هر کرت تناوبی به دو کرت فرعی مورد کشت سیب زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) و کلم (Brassica oleracea L.) تقسیم شد. در سال پنجم در هر دو کرت فرعی لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) کاشته شد. در تمام سال ها کرت های تناوبی که به عنوان کرت های اصلی در نظر گرفته شدند در معرض چهار ترکیب از دو سیستم مدیریتی حاصلخیزی و حفاظتی ارگانیک و متداول قرار گرفت. نمونه ترکیبی از خاک کرت های مورد بررسی برای مدت سه ماه در گلخانه قرار گرفت و تعداد و نوع گیاهچه های آنها تعیین شد. در پایان دوره، گیاهچه ها بر اساس نوع گونه و برخی از خصوصیات کارکردی طبقه بندی و ارزیابی شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تناوب های زراعی کوتاه مدت اثر قابل توجهی بر روی خصوصیات بانک بذر ندارد و تنها نسبت بعضی گروه های کار کردی را تغییر می دهد. اگر چه تعداد بذر علف های هرز در مدیریت حفاظتی ارگانیک در مقایسه با نوع مرسوم آن بیشتر بود، ولی این تعداد بیشتر مربوط به گونه هایی بود که تصور می شود نقش مهمی در ایجاد تنوع زیستی در بوم نظام های زراعی بازی می کنند. واکنش بانک بذر به مدیریت های متفاوت حاصلخیزی ارگانیک و مرسوم یکسان بود. همچنین خصوصیات کارکردی بانک بذر تحت تاثیر مدیریت های متفاوت حفاظتی و حاصلخیزی قرار نگرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different fertilizer and protection managements on seedbank properties in an organic system

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Sadrbadi Haghighi
  • N. Critchley
  • J. Cooper
  • C. Leifert
  • M. Eyre
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluation the effect of different crop rotation, fertilizer and protection managements on weed seed bank properties an experiment was conducted in Close House experimental glass house on the soil of 5th year of organic rotation that is conducting in University of Newcastle’s Nafferton Experimental Farm. Rotation was started with grass/clover for first two years and continued with wheat for third year. In 4th year each plot divided in two potato and cabbage sub plots. Beans were grown in both of two sub plots at 5th year. In all years, rotation plots that considered as main plots were exposed on four combinations of two different organic and conventional fertility and crop health managements as a sub or sub –sub plots. Composite soil sample of considered plots put in glass house for three months and number and type of seedlings were assessed. At the end of course seedlings were classified and evaluated on the basis of type of species and functional properties. Results showed that short time rotation has not significant effect on seedbank properties and only change some seed properties ratio. Although weed seed number was more in organic crop protection management in compared with conventional ones but this was related to species that considered have important role in biodiversity production in agroecosystems. Seedbank response to different organic and conventional fertilizer managements was similar. Also seedbank functional properties were not affected with different crop fertilizer and protection managements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitor radius
  • Ellenbergs’ value
  • Functional properties
  • Weed
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