ارزیابی کارایی نیتروژن در ژنوتیپ های سورگوم دانه ای (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

افزایش عملکرد محصولات زراعی توام با حفظ محیط زیست و سلامت انسان مرهون استفاده و کاربرد صحیح کود های نیتروژنه است. دراین مطالعه اثر سطوح مختلف مصرف نیتروژن برکارایی نیتروژن در ژنوتیپ های سورگوم دانه ای (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) در سال زراعی 88-1387 درمرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی بررسی شد. آزمایش بصورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. ژنوتیپ ها شامل (رقم سپیده ودو لاین امید بخش M2 و M5) در کرتهای اصلی و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن (0، 100 ،200 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره) و تیمار وضعیت فتوسنتز جاری (اختلال و عدم اختلال در فتوسنتز جاری) بصورت فاکتوریل در کرتهای فرعی قرار داشتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر اصلی نیتروژن برکارایی جذب (بازیافت)، مصرف (فیزیولوژیک)، استفاده (زراعی)، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت معنی دار (01/0 P≤) بود. کارایی بازیافت نیتروژن در تیمارعدم مصرف و مصرف 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به ترتیب 34/82 و 31/68 درصد حاصل شد و به میزان 05/43 و 67/18 درصد نسبت به تیمار 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار افزایش نشان داد. بیشترین درصد کارایی فیزیولوژیک به میزان 45/43 (گرم دانه برگرم نیتروژن) در تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن بدست آمد و نسبت به تیمار 200 کیلو گرم در هکتار با کمترین مقدار 38/30 ( گرم دانه بر گرم نیتروژن) اختلاف معنی داری داشت. بیشترین کارایی زراعی نیز در تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن به میزان 23/36 (گرم دانه بر گرم نیتروژن) حاصل شد. افزایش 107و02/43 درصدی نسبت به تیمار مصرف100 و200 کیلو نیتروژن در هکتار نشان داد. علیرغم کاهش کارایی نیتروژن (هر سه شاخص) با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به میزان 47/6 تن در هکتار بدست آمد که اختلاف معنی داری با تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن داشت. اثر ساده وضعیت فتوسنتزی بر صفت کارایی زراعی و فیزیولوژیک در سطح (01/0 P≤) و برکارایی بازیافت در سطح (05/0 P≤) معنی دار بود. تیمار عدم اختلال در فتوسنتز جاری بیشترین میزان کارایی را در صفات کا رایی بازیافت، فیزیولوژیک و زراعی به ترتیب به میزان 33/ 72 درصد، 55/39 گرم دانه بر گرم نیتروژن و26/29 گرم دانه بر گرم نیتروژن نشان داد و اختلاف معنی داری با تیمار اختلال در فتوسنتز جاری داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of nitrogen efficiency on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Jafariani
  • A.R. Beheshti
  • G. Taheri
چکیده [English]

Yield increase of crop along with human health and environment persistence could obtain from correct use of nitrogen fertilizer. In this study the effect of different regime N application on N efficiency grain sorghum genotypes in 2009 growing season at the Khorasan Razavi Agriculture Natural Resources Research Center Mashhad was investigated. Split plots experiment in base of randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications. The main plots were allocated to three genotypes (Sepideh cultivar, M2 and M5 promising lines) and the subplots consisted of photosynthesis status (non disturbance and disturbance current with potassium iodide) in factorial combination with three N regimes (0, 100, 200 kg/ha from urea fertilizer). The results of variance analysis showed that the nitrogen had significant (P ≤0. 01) effect on nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE), physiological N efficiency (PNE), grain yield and harvest index (HI). NRE percent in no N application and N application at 100 kg.ha-1 treatment were 82.34 and 68.31, respectively and increased 43.05 and 18.67 compared with 200 kg.ha-1.The highest agronomic N use efficiency and physiological efficiency obtained in no N application (36.23g grain per N g N applied and 43.45 g grain per g N absorbed respectively) and had107% and 43.02% increased compared to 200 kg.ha-1 treatment. In spite of increased in nitrogen efficiency (three traits) by decreased in N applied, the highest and significant yield obtained in N application at 100 kg.ha-1 (6.47 t.ha-1) compared to no N application(5.44 t.ha-1). Photosynthesis status had significant effect on ANE, RNE and PNE also. Non disturbance in current photosynthesis dramatically increased amount of these three N efficiency traits (29.26 g.g-1, 72.33% and 39.55 g.g-1) respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic nitrogen efficiency
  • Disturbance of current photosynthesis
  • Nitrogen recovery efficiency
  • Photosynthetic status
  • Physiological nitrogen efficiency
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