اثر خاک‌ورزی و مدیریت بقایای گیاهی جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) بر ویژگی‌های خاک و ذرت علوفه‌ای (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی روش خاک‌ورزی اولیه و مدیریت بقایای گیاهی گیاهی جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) بر ویژگی‌های خاک و ذرت علوفه‌ای (Zea mays L.)، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با هفت تیمار و سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل (1) آتش زدن کاه و کلش باقیمانده، شخم، دیسک و فاروئر، (2) جمع آوری و انتقال کاه و کلش به بیرون از زمین، شخم، دیسک و فاروئر، (3) شخم، دیسک و فاروئر، (4) استفاده از ساقه خرد کن، شخم، دیسک و فاروئر، (5) ساقه خرد کن، شخم، دیسک، 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه اوره و فاروئر، (6) ساقه خرد کن، شخم، دیسک، 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه اوره و فاروئر و (7) ساقه خرد کن، شخم، دیسک، 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه اوره و ده تن کود دامی و فاروئر بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارها تاثیر معنی‌داری بر نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر خاک، وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک، نقطه پژمردگی، ظرفیت زراعی و ظرفیت نگهداری آب خاک داشتند. بالاترین میزان نیتروژن (57/2%) و فسفر (32/0%) برگ از تیمار هفت حاصل شد و بیشترین مقادیر پتاسیم برگ 72/1% و 60/1% به ترتیب از تیمارهای هفت و شش بدست آمد. بالاترین عملکرد ذرت معادل 65/47 تن در هکتار از تیمار هفت حاصل شد که با تیمار شش با عملکرد 16/46 تن در هکتار تفاوت معنی داری نداشت. بنابراین بهترین روش تهیه بستر کاشت برای کسب بالاترین عملکرد ذرت در هکتار استفاده از ساقه خرد کن، شخم، دیسک، 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره، 10 تن در هکتار کود دامی و فاروئر قبل از کاشت ذرت بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of primary tillage method and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop residual management on the soil and silage corn (Zea mays L.) characteristics

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Ghooshchi
  • A. Jourabloo
  • M. Silsepour
  • H. Hadi
چکیده [English]

The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage and crop residues management of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on quantification and qualification yield of corn (Zea mays L.). Treatments were laid out in complete randomized block design with seven treatments and three replications and include (1) fire of straw and stubble, plow, disc and furrower (2) gathering and transfer of straw and stubble out of farm, plow, disc and furrower, (3) Plow, disc and furrower (4) Stalk shredder, plow, disc and furrower, (5) Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 50 kg.ha-1 urea and furrower (6) Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 100 kg.ha-1 urea and furrower, (7) Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 50 kg.ha-1 urea, 10 t.ha-1 animal manure and furrower. The results showed that treatments had significant effect on nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and protein of leaf, diameter and height of stem, ear yield, stem yield, leaf yield, total yield of corn, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, bulk density and of soil, wilting point, field capacity, available water. Maximum amount of nitrogen (2.57%) and phosphorous (0.32%) of leaf obtained from treatment of seven (Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 50 kg.ha-1 urea, 10 t.ha-1 animal manure and furrower) and the highest amount of potassium of leaf equal 1.72% obtained from treatment of seven (Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 50 kg.ha-1 urea, 10 t.ha-1 animal manure and furrower) and treatment of six (Stalk shredder, plow, disc, 100 kg.ha-1 urea and furrower) with amount of equal 1.60%. Maximum total yield of corn equal 47.65 t.ha-1 obtained from treatment seven that laid at same group with treatment of six with yield of 46.16 t.ha-1 and had no significant difference together. Therefore, the best method of seed bed for obtained total yield of corn was using stalk shredder, plow, disc, 50 kg.ha-1 urea, 10 t.ha-1 animal manure and furrower.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mineral nutrient
  • Nitrogen
  • Organic matter
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