بررسی امکان کنترل بیولوژیک علف هرز سس (Cuscuta campestris L.) با استفاده از عوامل بیماری های قارچی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

علف های هرز از مهمترین عوامل کاهش عملکرد محصولات زراعی می باشند، از این میان علف هرز سس (Cuscuta campestris L.) گیاهی انگلی است یکساله با گسترش جهانی که سبب کاهش عملکرد بسیاری از محصولات زراعی و باغی می شود. جهت یافتن عامل کنترل بیولوژیک مناسب به منظور کنترل سس، پژوهشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با پنج تکرار در سال 88-1387 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام پذیرفت. جمع آوری نمونه های سس آلوده به عوامل بیماری زا در منطقه چناران و از مزارع چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) صورت گرفت. پس از گردآوری، کشت و خالص سازی قارچ های موجود در رشته های سس جنس های Fusarium sp. ، Alternaria sp. و Colletotrichum sp. شناسایی شدند. مایه زنی ایزوله ها با غلظت 108 اسپور در میلی لیتر آب مقطر در مراحل مختلف رشدی علف هرز سس (جوانه زنی، پیش از اتصال به میزبان، پس از اتصال به میزبان و تشکیل هوستوریوم) در آزمایشگاه و گلخانه تحقیقاتی صورت گرفت. از میان قارچ های بدست آمده گونه F. oxysporum توانست کنترل مؤثری بر جوانه زنی بذور سس داشته باشد. با توسعه مراحل رشدی سس و استقرار آن روی میزبان از بیماری زایی قارچ مورد نظر کاسته شد. جهت بررسی تکمیلی، بیماری زایی این جدایه روی سایر گیاهان زراعی از جمله گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)، جو (Hordeum vulgare L.)، یونجه (Medigago sativa L.)، چغندرقند و ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و هیچگونه علایم بیماری در آنها مشاهده نگردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological control of dodder (Cuscuta campestris L.) by fungi pathogens

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Fallahpour
  • A. Koocheki
  • M. Nassiri Mahallati
  • M. Falahati Rastegar
  • R. Ghorbani
چکیده [English]

Parasite weeds are the most important yield reducing factors, and among them dodder (Cuscuta campestris L.) is an obligate parasite of many plant families. In order to find a suitable biocontrol agent for dodder a study was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four replications at research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2007-2009. Diseased dodders sampled from sugarbeet farms of Chenaran, Iran. After culturing and isolating exiting fungi from infected tissues of dodder, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp. and Colletotrichum sp. were recognized. Inoculation of isolates was carried out with concenteration of 1×108 spores per ml sterile water at different growth stages of dodder in labratoary and greenhouse. Among different fungi, isolate of 323 of F. oxysporum showed an effective control on germination of dodder seeds and the highest level of plant pathogencity was before the contact of dodder with host and infection in older plants decreased. Infection of this isolate with crops such as sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), alfalfa (Medigago sativa L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed no symptoms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternaria
  • Fusarium
  • Parasitic plants
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