اثر رقابت گونه مهاجم سوروف (Echinochloa oryzicola (Ard) Fisher) در مزارع برنج گیلان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی



سوروف (Echinochloa oryzicola (Ard) Fisher) گونه مهاجم در شالیزارهای کشور و دارای خواص تقلیدکنندگی از برنج می باشد. به منظور بررسی اثر رقابتی گونه مهاجم سوروف و ارزیابی میزان خسارت آن در مزارع برنج، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در موسسه برنج کشور در رشت در سال زرعی 1387 انجام شد. فاکتور های آزمایشی شامل سه سطح تراکم (10، 20 و 40 بوته در متر مربع ) و برای برنج در تراکم رایج منطقه (20 کپه در متر مربع) می‌باشد. نتایج حاصل از داده های آزمایشی و مدل رگرسیونی دلالت بر این دارد که سوروف برنج باعث کاهش معنی دار عملکرد دانه، تعداد خوشه در بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت در سطح احتمال 1درصد گردید. با افزایش تراکم 40-0 بوته در متر مربع، کاهش عملکرد دانه تا 70 درصد را نشان داده است. میزان کاهش تعداد دانه در خوشه در تراکم های 10، 20 و 40 بوته در متر مربع به ترتیب 34، 41 و 43 درصد و میزان کاهش تعداد خوشه دربوته برنج در اثر تداخل با سوروف برنج به ترتیب 62، 64 و 62 درصد بود. تراکم های 10، 20 و 40 بوته در متر مربع بطور متوسط موجب 49، 67 و 61 درصد کاهش در تعداد پنجه برنج گردید. برنج، در تراکم 40 بوته سوروف برنج کمترین ارتفاع و در تیمار شاهد(بدون وجود علف هرز) بیشترین ارتفاع را دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of competition of early watergrass (Echinochloa oryzicola (Ard) Fisher) on rice fields of Guilan

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.J. Golmohammadi
  • H. Alizadeh
  • B. Yaghoubi
  • M. Nahvi
چکیده [English]

ٍEarly watergrass (Echinochloa oryzicola (Ard) Fisher) is an aggressive specie of Echinochloa and have mimicry chareterstics of rice . In order to evaluate competitive effect of aggressive specie of Echinochloa on Rice, an experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Rasht during 2007. The experimental design was complete randomized block with three replications. The treatment included weeds density at three densities (10, 20 and 40 plant/m2) and Rice was transplanted with local normal density (20 bunch.m-2 and each bunch included three plants). Result indicated that early water grass decreased grain yield, the number of panicle per plant, biologic yield and harvest index were significantly at possible area 1%. When density increased until 40 plant.m-2, grain yield lossed was 70%. Loss of number seed per panicle in densities 10, 20 and 40 plant/m2 was 34, 41 and 43 present and loss of number panicle per plant of rice in competition to Echinochloa was 62, 64 and 62 present respectively. Densities of 10, 20 and 40 plant.m-2 decreased average of rice height to 49, 67 and 61 present, respectively. Rice in densities 40 plant.m-2 of weed had less highest and in densities 0 plant.m-2 the highest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Density
  • Weed
  • Yield loss
1- Ahmed, S.A., Mamun, A., Islam, M.A., and Hossein, S.M.A. 1986. Critical period of weed competition in transplant Aus rice. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture 11: 1–19.
2- Ampong-Nyarko, K., and De Detta, S.K. 1991. A Handbook for Weed Control in Rice. IRRI, Manila. 113 pp.
3- Azmi, M., and Abdullah, M.Z. 1998. A Manual for the Identification and Control of Padi again (weedy rice) in Malaysia. Serdang (Malaysia): MARDI Pubication. 18 pp.
4- Barrett, S.C., and Wilson, B.F. 1983. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (Barnyardgrass). II. Seed biology Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 556- 562.
5- Brian V., Ottis, B.V., and Ronald, E. 2007. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) Control and Rice Density Effects on Rice Yield Components. Weed Technology 21:110–118
6- Chavez, R.S., and Moody, K. 1988. Competition between rice and two ecotype of Echinochloa colona (Philippines). 19. Pest Control Council of the Philippines, 3-7 May 1988. Cebu City. Philippines.
7- Daugovish, O., Lyon, D.J., and Baltensperger, D.D. 1999. Cropping systems to control winter annual grasses in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Weed Technology 13:120-126.
8- Fofana, B., and Rouber, R. 1988. Weed suppression ability of upland rice under low–input conditions in West Africa. Weed Research 40: 271-280.
9- Fukai, S., Pantuwan, G., Jongdee, B., and Cooper, M. 1999. Screening for drought resistance in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Research 64:61-74.
10- Garrity, D.P., Movillow, M., and Moody, K. 1992. Differential weed suppression ability in upland rice cultivars. Agronomy Journal 84: 586-591.
11- Generosova, I.P., and Vartapetian, B.B. 2005. On the physiological role of anaerobically Synthesized Lipids in Oryza sativa Seedlings. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 52: 481–488.
12- Ghorbanpour, M. 2003. Effect managements various of irrigation on morphological and physiological charestristic rice in Iran north paddy fields. MSc Thesis, college of Agriculture, Tehran University. 101p. (In Persian with English Summary)
13- Guowei, W. U., Hioyd, T., and Anna, M. 1998. Contribution 0f rice tillers to dry matter accumulation and yield. Agronomy Journal 90: 317-323.
14- Islam, F., Rezaul, K., and Haque, S.M.A. 2003. Effect pf population Density of Echinochloa crusgalli and Echinochloa colonum. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy 2(3): 120–125.
15- Johnson, D.E., Dingkuhn, M., Joens, M.P., and Mahmane, M.C. 1998. The influence of rice plant type on the effect of weed competition on Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Weed Research 38: 207-218.
16- Kennedy, R.A., Barrett, S.C., Zee, V.D., and Rumpho, M.E. 1980. Germination and seeding growth under anaerobic conditions in Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyardgrass). Plant, Cell and Environment 3:243- 248
17- Kleinig, C.R., and Noble, J.C. 2002. Competition between rice and barnyard grass (Echinochloa). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 8(32): 358- 363.
18- Lindquist, J. L., and Kropff, M.J. 1996. Applications of an ecophysiological model for integrated rice (Oryza sativa) and Echinochloa Comptetion. Weed Science 44:52–56.
19- Maria, J.A., Jose, L.C., and Busto, A.D. 1999. Morphologic and isozyme variation in Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa) weed species. Weed Technology 13:209–215
20- Micheal, P.W. 1983. Taxonomy and Distribution of Echinochloa spp. with Special Reference to Their Occurrence as Weeds of Rice. In: Weed Control in Rice, 291- 306. International Rice Research Institute.
21- Mirkamali, H. 2006. The weeds of rice fields and the control methods. Deputy for Education and Manpower Development. (In Persian)
22- Olofsdotter, M., Navarez, D., and Rebulanan, M. 1999. Weed suppressing rice cultivars-does allelopathy play a role. Weed Research 39: 441-454.
23- Ottis, B.V., Talbert, R.E. 2007. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control and rice density effects on rice yield components. Weed Technology 21:110–118.
24- Perera, K.K., Ayres, P.G., and Gunasena, H.P.M. 1992. Root growth and the relative importance of root and shoot competition in interactions between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Echinochloa crusgalli. Weed Research 32: 67-76.
25- Pozesh, V. 2000. Evaluation of competition redroot pigweed (Amarantus retroflexus) to corn (Zea mays L.), MSc Thesis, Mashhad Ferdowsi University. (In Persian with English Summary)
26- Rahimian, H., and Shariati, Sh. 1999. Modeling Crop- Weed Interactions. Agricultural Instruction Publication. 294 pp. (In Persian)
27- Rohrig, M., and Stutzel, H. 2001. A model for light competition between vegetable crops and weeds. Eur. J. Agron. 14: 13-29.
28- Sarmadnia, Gh., and Koocheki, A. 2002. Effect of population density of Echinochloa crusgalli and Echinochloa colonum. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy 2(3): 120-125.
29- Smith, R.J., Flinchum, W.T., and Seaman, D.E. 1977. Weed control in U.S. rice production. U.S.
30- Sultana, R. 2000. Competitive ability of wet- seeded boro rice against Echinochloa crusgalli and Echinochloa colonum .M. S. Thesis, BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, pp. 33-50.
31- Suzuki, T., Shiraiwa, T., and Horie, T. 2002. Competitiveness of four rice cultivars against Barnyardgrass, Echinohloa oryzicola vasing, with reference to root and shoot competition. Plant Production Science 5(1): 77-82.
32- Watanabe, H., Azmi, M., and Zuki, I. 1997. Emergence of major weeds and their population change in wet- seeded rice fields in the muda area, Peninsular Malaysia. Proceeding of 16th Asian pacific weed science society. P: 246-250.
33- Yaghoubi, B., Zand, E., and Joharali, A. 2006. New specie of Echinochloa a serious problem for Iran paddy. The 17th Iranian Plant Pathology Congress, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
34- Yamasue, Y. 2001. Strategy of Echinochloa oryzicola vasing for survival in flooded rice. Weed Biology and Management 1:28–36.
35- Zand, E., Rahimian, H., Koocheki, A., Kholghani, H., Mosavi, S.K., and Ramzani, K. 2004. Theweeds Ecology and Management Practical. Version: Mashhsd Press. 558 pp. (In Persian)