Document Type : Research Article
Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran.
It is estimated that by 2050, the world's population will increase by 30 to 35 percent, so about 60 percent growth in agricultural production must be achieved for proper nutrition. Food security refers to a situation in which people at all times, physically, socially, and economically, have access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food that meets their nutritional needs and preferences for an active and healthy life. One of the most important challenges of the 21st century to improve food security is the preservation of agricultural biodiversity. Biodiversity is a key factor in ensuring that adequate food is available at any given scale and is often assessed in terms of genetic composition as well as their stability locally. Conventional single-crop farming systems depend on a small number of high-yield crops and their expansion, in addition to environmental problems, led to significant reductions in plant biodiversity. There are different approaches to addressing food security and biodiversity protection concerns. This study aimed to investigate food security and effective factors in the protection of agricultural biodiversity to ensure sustainable food security.
Materials and Methods
This research has been performed in Anzali port. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical method. This study was conducted in two stages: 1. Food security status: information required for research through library and documentary studies (detailed results of the country's census and village identity) and part of it through field studies (observation, interview, and questionnaire). In this regard, in the first stage, a questionnaire related to food security indicators such as food adequacy, health, nutrition, and availability to have an active and healthy life was used. Randomly selected and a total of 90 households in the city were interviewed. 2. Study of the role of agriculture. Biodiversity Conservation Indicators in Ensuring Sustainable Food Security, 100 farm managers were surveyed in 10 villages, and the questions were divided into 5 groups: economic, social, educational, infrastructure, and organizational. Finally, SPSS software and Pearson correlation were used to plot the chart and statistical analysis.
Results and Discussion
The city has food adequacy, access to food, and healthy activity, which is about 8 hours a day, but in terms of healthy living away from disease, nutrition, and having a healthy food free of chemical inputs, is poor. Improving food security is especially important for developing countries where social, political, cultural, and economic developments can improve food security. The government should adopt policies such as global cash food subsidies to improve food security, direct support for low-income households, and allocate subsidies based on the geographical location of these households. Our results show that even in a city, the relationship between socio-economic factors and caloric intake can vary from region to region. Thus, if governments choose specific policies (for example, education policies), they should target provinces where food security is negatively correlated with calorie intake. Simple income-raising policies are not always an effective way to improve calorie intake in rural areas. Relevant and private government institutions should focus on other socio-economic factors and prioritize them in improving calorie intake in the family and improving health outcomes. In all villages except the exempt village, infrastructure factors have the greatest impact on maintaining biodiversity, and in the exempt village, economic factors have the greatest impact. The highest standard deviation is seen in the infrastructure factors related to the villages of Torbegodeh, Talebabad, ShilehSar, Khomeyran, Ashpala, Abkenar, and Kapurchal. The most standard deviation in other villages is related to economic factors. In Torbegodeh and Rudpasht villages, the importance of educational factors, Talebabad, Shileh Sar, and Kapurchal villages, the importance of social factors, Khomeyran, Maaf, and Ashpala villages, the importance of infrastructure factors, and Abkenar village, environmental factors are more.
In general, in this region, rice fields with high inputs of resources and low crop diversity and environmental impacts can lead to environmental feedback in different areas, for example, reducing biodiversity and soil fertility, which is more dependent on the base. Fossil fuel inputs for robust production stability. To this end, focusing on the production of agricultural products for domestic consumption to increase food security by supporting rural livelihoods and the production of environmentally sustainable food should be a priority.