Thermal and Optical Response of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) to Summer Planting Date in Mazandaran Region

Document Type : Research Article


Seed and Plant Improvement Research Dept., Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Iran. Sari Street


Secondary or double cropping not only increases production per unit area but also makes optimal use of other production resources. Faba bean responds to and changes its environment by altering on-site soil fertility, microclimate, and co-habitats of wild flora and fauna. Besides its worldwide use for food and feed, extensive knowledge exists about its ability to symbiotically fix and add nitrogen to the soil, making additional soil nitrogen available and thereby enhancing and sustaining soil productivity. The optimum planting date, optimizes the use of climatic factors such as temperature, humidity, day length, as well as matching flowering time with appropriate temperature. Planting date should be set so that overheating does not harm the plant, especially during the flowering period. A change in planting date may also overshadow the plant's yield by affecting the adaptation of plant growth to environmental conditions, vegetative and reproductive growth (Oplinger et al., 2000). Therefore, knowing the thermal indicators such as the heat accumulation unit, which in most sources is referred to as the degree of maturity days. And all its other mathematical derivations are the same as hlio-thermal unit (HTU), growing degree days (GDD), pheno-thermal index (PTI), crop heat unit (CHU), heat use efficiency (HUE), relative temperature disparity (RTD), It can provide basic principles for determining the phenological stages and the optimum planting date (Sreenivas et al., 2010).
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of off-season sowing date (summer) on the accumulation of thermal units, yield and yield components in faba bean var. Luzde otono, an experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications during 2017-2018 for two years at Agricultural Research Station Gharakhil (gaem shahr). Experimental treatments were sowing date in four levels of June 10, 30 and July 20, and August 10, main plot and row spacing in three levels of 45, 60 and 75 cm as sub plots. During vegetative and reproductive phases, weeds were controlled and data were recorded on days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, harvest index, number pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and Green pod yield. Also in maturity, after removing the effect marginal, yield and yield components were calculated. Data were analyzed using the SAS. Ver. 9.1 and figures were drawn by EXCEL and means compared by using DMRT at the 5% probability level.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of variance showed that the effect of year and planting date and their interactions on number of pods per plant, pod length, plant height and green pod yield were significant (P≤0.01). The unit of heliothermal was greater in 2018 (from 0.47 to 0.88) compared to 2017 (from 0.45 to 0.86), this was due to the increase in average air temperature and the number of sunshine hours. The highest heat use efficiency (HUE) was obtained related to the third sowing date (July 20) in 2018. Also, among the studied indicators, the heat use efficiency (HUE) and the efficiency of consumption of sunny hours (RUE) as well as estimated thermal requirement of faba bean var. Luzde otono in different sowing dates and at different stages of development and in this direction, due to having a constant and logical trend, they have a relative superiority over other indicators such as GDD and PTI.
The results of mean comparisons showed that the highest green pods yield Gained var. Luzde otono in the third sowing date (July 20) with 10422 (kg ha-1) and row spacing 60 cm with 10723 (kg ha-1). Based on the results of this research, To escaped from heat and thermal stress during the reproductive stage of Faba bean in mid-summer and also poding did not coincide with a drop in temperature at the beginning of autumn to achieve the highest yield Faba bean var. Luzde otono should be planted in August.


Main Subjects

  1. Ahmad, T., Hafeez, F.Y., Mahmood, T., & Malik, K.A. (2008). Residual effect of nitrogen fixed by mungbean (Vigna radiata) and blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) on subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum astivum L.) crops. Australian Journal Experimental Agricultural, 41, 245–248.
  2. Ahmadi, G. (2011). Determination of the best planting date, seed rate and row spacing of faba been (var. Barekat) as second crop in Guilan. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
  3. Agung, S., & McDonald, G.K. (1998). Effects of seed size and maturity on the growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba ). Australian Journal Agricultural Research, 49, 79-88.
  4. Amgain, L.P. (2011). Accumulated heat unit and phenology of diverse maize varieties as affected by planting dates under Rampur condition, Nepal. Agronomy Journal of Nepal, 2, 111-120.
  5. Brown, D.M., & Bootsma, A. (1993). Crop heat units for corn and other warm-season crops in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food Factsheet Agdex 111/31.ISSNNo. 0225-7882. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Queen’s Park, Toronto, ON, Canada.
  6. Cheema, M.A., Malik, A., Hussain, S., Shah, R., & Basra, S. (2001). Effects of time and rate of nitrogen and phosphorous application on the growth and the seed and oil yields of canola (Brassica napus ). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 186, 103-110.
  7. Dahmardeh, M., Ramroodi, M., & Valizadeh, J. (2010). Effect of plant density and cultivars on growth, yield and yield components of faba bean. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(50), 8643-8647.
  8. Degwy, I.S., Glelah, A.A., El-Galaly, A., & Marwa, K. (2010). Performance of some faba bean cultivars as influenced by sowing date and broomrape control. Journal of Agricultural Research, 36, 292-313.
  9. Eilkaee, M.N., & Emam, Y. (2003). Effect of plant density on yield and yield components in two winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus ) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 34(3), 509-515. (In Persian with English Summary)
  10. Erskine, W.A., Nassib, M., & Telaye, A. (1988). Breeding for morphological traits. In: R.J. Summerfield (Ed), World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 117-127.
  11. Faraji, A. (2006). Effect of planting date and yield and seed yield components of four canola genotypes in Gonbad. Journal Seed and Plant Production, 7(3), 189-201. (In Persian with English Summary)
  12. Grijesh, G., Kumara, K., Swamy, A.S., Sridhara, S., Dinish Kumar, M., Vageesh, T.S., & Nataraju, S.P. (2011). Heat use efficiency and helio thermal units of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes as influenced by date of sowing under Southern transitional zone of Karanatak state. International Journal of Science and Nature, 2(3), 529-533.
  13. Harris, D., Pathan, A.K., Gothkar, P., Joshi, A., Chivasa, W., & Nyamudeze, P. (2001). On-farm seed priming: using participatory methods to revive and refine a key technology. Agricultural Systems, 69, 151-164.
  14. Hashemabadi, D., & Sedaghathour, S. (2006). Study of mutual effect of the sowing date and plant density on yield and yield component of winter faba bean. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1), 135-142. (In Persian with English Summary)
  15. Hashemi-dezfouli, S., Alami-saeed, K.h., Siadat, S.A., & Komeili, M.R. (2001). Effect of planting date on potential of yield of two sweet corn hybrids in invironmental condition of Khozestan. Journal of Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, 32, 681-689. (In Persian with English Summary)
  16. Isaac, L., Wood, C.W., & Shannon, D.A. (2008). Decomposition and nitrogen release of prunings from hedgerow species assessed for alley cropping in Haiti. Agronomy Journal, 92, 501-511. 2134/agronj2000.923501x
  17. Jones, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Porter, C.H., Bootee, K.J., Batchelor, W.D., Hunt, L.A., Wilkens, P.W., Singh, U., Gijsman A.J., & Ritchie, J.T. (2003). The DSSAT cropping system model. European Journal of Agronomy, 18, 235-265.
  18. Kaiser, W.J., & Hannan, R.M. (1985). Effects of planting date and fungicide treatment on emergence and yield of kabuli and desi chickpea in eastern Washington State. International Chickpea News Letter, 12, 16-19.
  19. Karimi, M.M., & Siddique, K.H.M. (1991). Crop growth and relative growth rates of old and modern wheat cultivers. Australian Journal Agricultural Research, 42, 13-20.
  20. Khajepour, M.R. (1993). Principles and basics of Agronomy. Isfahan university of Technology. Jihad-e- Daneshgahi. Press of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, 386 pp. (In Persian)
  21. Khadem Hamza, H., Karimi R.M., Rezai, A., & Ahmadi, M. (2005). Effect of plant density and sowing date on agronomic traits, yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(3), 357-367. (In Persian with English Summary)
  22. Khalil, S.K., Wahab, A., Rehman, A., & Amin, R. (2010). Density and planting date influences on phenological development, assimilate partitioning and dry matter production of faba bean. Pakistan Journal Botany, 42(6), 3831-3838.
  23. Khanjani, M., Mahmoodi, S., & Hmial-Ahmadi, M. (2010). The effect of density and relative timing of datura (Datura stramonium ) weed emergence. Journal of Crop Physiology. Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, 7, 13-27. (In Persian with English Summary)
  24. Kharrat harrat, M., & Ouchari, H. (2011). Faba bean (Vicia faba ) status and prospects in Tunisia. Grain Legumes, 56, 11-13.
  25. Kianbakht, M., Zinali, A., Siahmargui, A., Sheikh, F., & Pouri, M. (2014). Determination of the best planting date for three bean (Phasaeolus vulgaris ) cultivars in Gorgan. First International Congress of Seeds and 13th Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Karaj, Iran, pp. 54-64. (In Persian with English Summary)
  26. Kopke, U., & Nemecek, T. (2010). Ecological services of faba bean. Field Crops Research, 115, 217–233.
  27. Luce, S.M., Grant, C.A., Zebarth, B.J., Ziadi, N., O’Donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., Johnson, E.N., Gan, Y., Lafond, G.P., May, W.E., Khakbazan, M., & Smith, E.G. (2015). Legumes can reduce economic optimum nitrogen rates and increaseyields in a wheat–canola cropping sequence in western Canada. Field Crops Research, 179, 12–25.
  28. Martini, M.Y., McKenzie, B.A., Moot, D.J., & Hill, G.D. (2012). Dry matter accumulation of faba bean sown at different sowing date in Canterbury. Agronomy New Zealand 42, 43-51.
  29. Miller, H.E., Rigelhof, F., Marquart, L., Prakash, A., & Kanter, M. (2000). Whole-grain products and antioxidants. Cereal Foods World, 45, 59–63.
  30. Mohdal, A.R., Munira, T., & Tahawa, M. (2004). Effect of seed size and plant population density on yield and yield components of local faba bean (Vicia faba Major). Journal Agriculture Biotecnology, 6, 294-29.
  31. Naruirad, M.R., Agaie, M.J., Fanaei, H.R., & Qasemi, M. (2009). Genetic variation of some morphological and phenological traits of lentil masses in hot and dry regions.Research and Construction in Agriculture and Horticulture, 87, 173-186. (In Persian with English Summary)
  32. Naseri, R., Rahimi, M.J., Siyadat, S.A., & Mirzaei, A. (2011). The effects of supplementary irrigation and different plant densities on morphological traits, yield and its components and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ) in Sirvan region in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 6(1), 78-91. (In Persian with English Summary).
  33. Nielsen, R.L., Thomison, P.R., Brown, G.A., Halter, A.L., Wells, J., & Wuethrich, K.L. (2002). Delayed planting effects on flowering and grain maturation of dentcorn. Agronomy Journal, 94, 549-558.
  34. O'brien, P., JAllen, E.J., & Firman, D.M. (1998). A review of some studies into tuber initiation in potato (Solanum tuberosum ) crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 130, 251-270.
  35. Okpara, D.A. (1999). Response of African yambean to sowing date and plant density. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, 1(2), 191-197.
  36. Oliver, C.R., & Annandale, J.G. (1998). Thermal time requirements for the development of green pea (Pisum Sativum ). Field Crop Research, 56, 301-307.
  37. Omae, H., Kumar, A., & Shono, M. (2012). Adaptation to high temperature and water deficit in the common bean during the reproductive period. Journal of Botany, 1-7.
  38. Oplinger, E.S., Putnam, D.H., Doll, J.D., & Combs, S.M. (2000). Faba bean, Alternative field crops manual, /newcrop/afcm/fababean.html.
  39. Panbekar, N.A., Dastan, S., Yadi, R., & Shahidifar, A. (2015). Effect of nitrogen splitting and planting row space on yield and yield components in faba bean (Vicia faba ) Barkat cultivar. Journal of Crop Production Research, 6(4), 341-355. (In Persian with English Summary)
  40. Peter, G. (2000). Climate and Crops Activity, Translation, Kafi, M., Ganjali, A., Nezami, A., Shareyatmadar, F. Prees Jahad University of Mashad, Iran. pp. 311.
  41. Rahmani, T., Heidari Sharif Abad, H., & Madani, H. (2012). The study of effect plantig date on yeild of red bean cultivars in Aligudarz region. New Finding Agriculture, (4), 321-335. (In Persian with English Summary)
  42. Ram, H., Singh, G., Mavi, G., & Sohu, B. (2012). Accumulated heat unit requirement and yield of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum ) varieties under different crop growing environment in central Punjab. Journal of Agrometeorology, 14, 147-153.
  43. Rao, V.U.M., Singh, D., & Singh, R. (2003). Heat use efficiency of winter crop in Haryana. Journal of AgroMeteorology, 1(2), 143-148.
  44. RezvaniMoghaddam, P., & Samarjan, R. (2009). Effect of different planting dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and yield of chickpea varieties ILC3279 in Neyshabur weather conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 2, 315-325. (In Persian with English Summary)
  45. Sadeghipour, A., Ghafari Khaliq, H., & Monem, R. (2005). Effect of plant density on yield and yield components of limited and unlimited growth cultivars in red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11(1), 149-156. (In Persian with English Summary)
  46. Salehi, M., Akbari, R., & Khorshidi benam, M.B. (2008).Investigation of yield response and seed yield components of red bean cultivars. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 43(1), 105-115. (In Persian with English Summary)
  47. Sarparast, R., & Norozi, S. (2016). Histal, with high yield and suitable planting cultivar in temperate zones and Mediterranean Northern of The first International Conference on “Healthy Agriculture, Nutrition and Community (ICANC 2015). Tehran, Iran. pp. 215-225. (In Persian with English Summary)
  48. Saxena, N.P. (1984). Physiology of Tropical Field Crop. Chickpea. pp. 419–452. In: P.R. Goldsworthy and N.M. Fisher (Eds). John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  49. Seghatoleslami, M.J., & Ahmadi Bonakdar, K. (2010). The effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgracum ) Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(2), 265-274. (In Persian with English Summary).
  50. Shah, Z., Shah, S.H., Peoples, M.B., Schwenke, G.D., & Hrridge, D.F. (2003). Crop residue and fiertilizer N effects on nitrogen fixation and yields of legume-cereal rotations and soil organic fetility. Field Crops Research, 83, 1–1137.
  51. Singh, M.P., Lallu, K.R., & Sign, N.B. (2014). Thermal requirement of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) at different phonological stages under late sown condition. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(3), 238-243.
  52. Sreenivas, G., Devender Reddy, M., & Raji Reddy, D. (2010). Agro-meteorological indices in relation to phenology of aerobic rice (Oryza Sativa ). Journal of Agrometeorology, 12(2), 241-24.
  53. Turk, M.A., & Tawaha, A.M. (2002). Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba minor) in the absence of moisture stress. Journal of Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 6(3), 171-178.
  54. Vaezirad, S., Shekari, F., Shirani Rad, A.H., & Zangani, A. (2008). Effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages on yield and yield components of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). cultivars. Modern Agricultural Knowledge, 4(10), 86-94. (In Persian with English Summary)
  55. Worthington, C.M., & Hutchinson, C.M. (2005). Accumulated growing degree days as a model to determine key developmental stages and evaluate yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum ) in Northeast Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 118, 98-101.
  56. Yasari, T., Shahsavari, M.R., Barzegar, A.B., & Omidi, A.H. (2005). Study of developmental stages and their relationship with seed yield of advanced sunflower (Helianthus annuus ) genotype. Research and Construction in Agriculture and Horticulture, 68, 75-83. (In Persian with English Summary)
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Serial Number 57
September 2023
Pages 565-583
  • Receive Date: 24 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 07 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 12 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 12 February 2022