Investigation of the Effect of Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Two Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Cultivars in Southern Khuzestan Province

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Expert of Khuzestan Water and Electricity Organization, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Technical and Engineering Research, Khuzestan Agricultural Research and Training Center and Natural Resources, Agricultural Education and Extension Research Organization of Iran, Iran.

3 Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran


Salinity is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect crop production. In all areas where irrigation is essential for crop production, soil salinity is inevitable . This phenomenon has gradually become a major problem in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Among the strategies to deal with abiotic stresses are the development of salinity tolerant cultivars, crop rotation, genetic modification, use of appropriate organic and chemical fertilizers.
Quinoa is a promising species of halophyte that has the potential to become a crop. Quinoa, scientifically known as Chenopodium quinoa willd, is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family of spinach and is often self-pollinating. Salinity stress has great effects on plant growth, seed quality and grain yield even in saline plants such as quinoa. Due to plant growth salinity, total grain yield, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of seeds are reduced. Nitrogen is one of the essential nutrients for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilizers play an essential role in increasing yield as well as improving grain quality. Quinoa needs a lot of soil nitrogen and the use of nitrogen fertilizer is very important for crop growth during the vegetative growth period of quinoa.
Quinoa cultivation, especially by using drainage in the southern regions of Iran as a salinity-resistant crop, will lead to diversification of crops, sustainable production, and increase farmers' incomes and food security. Considering that agriculture and supply of nitrogen required by the plant is very important in order to increase crop production with optimal yield, the amount of fertilizer used and also the appropriate cultivar need to be investigated and a step to determine the best cultivar and the best level of nitrogen fertilizer and its effect on yield, yield components, grain protein concentration and efficiency of nitrogen application under irrigation conditions of sugarcane fields in the south of Khuzestan province.
Materials and Methods
This research was carried out in field conditions in the 97th crop year in Mirza Kuchak Khan Sugarcane Cultivation and Industry Company in the form of split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors include urea fertilizer at four levels: 0 (control), 75, 150, 225 kg / ha) as the main factor and two quinoa cultivars (Titi Kaka: V1 and Gizavan: V2) as the secondary factor in Was considered.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the interaction of nitrogen and cultivar on leaf area index, number of inflorescences per plant, grain yield, biological yield and grain protein were significant. The highest plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index belonged to 225 kg N / ha. The highest grain yield in Gizavan cultivar (2363 kg / ha) was obtained at the level of 150 kg N / ha and then decreased, but in Titi Kaka cultivar the highest grain yield (2372 kg / ha) was obtained at the level of 225 kg N / ha. Obtained and the reaction was linearly reduced to the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer. The highest amount of grain protein was observed in Gizavan cultivar with application of 150 kg N / ha, which was 138% higher than the control treatment. Based on the obtained results, Gizavan Quinoa cultivar can be a very suitable choice for saline and low-yield fields in the south of Khuzestan province.
According to the results of the study, increasing the application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the yield and yield components and grain nitrogen. Application of 150 kg nitrogen per hectare in Gizavan cultivar with an average yield of 2.36 tons per hectare in the climate of southern Khuzestan province along with the application of drainage from sugarcane cultivation produced the highest grain yield. Quinoa due to its high genetic diversity and adaptation to different climates, high nutritional value and high efficiency of resource use, can be a suitable plant for the use of unconventional soil and water resources in the south of Khuzestan province. It is recommended that future tests be performed on quinoa at different locations with different cropping methods and other fertilizer levels to ensure that the results are relatively consistent over time.


Main Subjects

Aamer, S., Hassan, M., Ehsanullah, Shakeel, A.A., Mohsin, T., and Aziz, R., 2014. Growth and development of Chenopodium quinoa genotypes at different sowing dates. Journal of Agricultural Research 52(4): 535-546.
Abou-Amer, A.I., and Kamel, A.S., 2011. Growth, yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under different rates and methods of nitrogen fertilization. Egyptian journal of agronomy 33(2): 155-166. 10.21608/agro.2011.156
Algosaibi, A.M., El-Garawany, M.M., Badran, A.E., and Almadini, A.M., 2015. Effect of irrigation water salinity on the growth of quinoa plant seedlings. Journal of Agricultural Science 7(8): 205. 10.5539/jas.v7n8p205
Alshameri, A., Al-Qurainy, F., Khan, S., Nadeem, M., Gaafar, A.R., Tarroum, M., Alameri, A., Alansi, S., Arduini, I., Masoni, A., Ercoli, L., and Mariotti, M., 2006. Grain yield, and dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in durum wheat as affected by variety and seeding rate. The European Journal of Agronomy 25: 309-318.
Almaliotis, D., Therios, I., & Karatassiou, M. 1996, September. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthesis in three peach cultivars. In II International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops 449 (pp. 529-534).
Arduini, I., Masoni, A., Ercoli, L., & Mariotti, M. 2006. Grain yield, and dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in durum wheat as affected by variety and seeding rate. European Journal of Agronomy, 25(4), 309-318.
Awadalla, A., and Morsy, S., 2017. Influence of planting dates and nitrogen fertilization on the performance of quinoa genotypes under Toshka conditions. Egyptian Journal of Agronomy 39(1): 27-40. 10.21608/agro.2017.440.1047
Azarpour, E., Bozorgi, H.R., Moraditochaee, M., 2014. Effects ofascorbic acid foliar spraying and nitrogen fertilizer management in spraying cultivation ofquinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in North of Iran. Biological Forum – An International Journal. 6(2): 254-260
Basra, S.M.A., Iqbal, S., and Afzal, I., 2014. Evaluating the response of nitrogen application on growth, development and yield of quinoa genotypes. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 16(5): 886-892.
Bertero, H.D., De La Vega, A.J., Correa, G., Jacobsen, S.E., and Mujica, A., 2004. Genotype and genotype-by-environment interaction effects for grain yield and grain size of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as revealed by pattern analysis of international multi-environment trials. Field Crops Research 89: 299-318.
Bhargava, A., Shukla, S., and Ohri, D., 2006. Chenopodium quinoa-An Indian perspective. Industrial Crops and Products 23: 73–87.
Bhargava, A., Shukla, S., and Ohri, D., 2007. Genetic variability and interrelationship among various morphological and quality traits in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Field Crops Research 101: 104–116.
Bremner, J.M., and Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: A.L. Page (Ed). Methods of soil analysis, part 2, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 594-622.
Chakraborty, U., Roy, S., Chakraborty, A.P., Dey, P., and Chakraborty, B., 2011. Plant growth promotion and amelioration of salinity stress in crop plants by a salt-tolerant bacterium. Recent Research in Science and Technology 3: 61-70.
Comai, S., Bertazzo, A., Bailoni, L., Zancato, M., Costa, C.V.L., and Allegri, G., 2007. The content of proteic and nonproteic (free and protein bound) tryptophan in quinoa and cereal flours. Food Chemistry Journal. 100: 1350-1355.
Craswell, E.T., and Godwin, D.C., 1984. The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied to cereals in different climates. In: "Advances in plant Nutrition" In: P.B. Tinker and Luchli A. (Eds) Vol. I. Praeger publ. Country.
Erley, G.S.A., Kaul, H., Kruse, M., and Aufhammer, W., 2005. Yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat under differing nitrogen fertilization. The European Journal of Agronomy 22: 95–100.
FAO, 2011. Quinoa; An Acient Crop to Contribute to World Food. Agricultuer Marketing Resourse Center.Security. 63 p.
Flowers, T.J., and Flowers, S.A., 2005. Why does salinity pose such a different problem for plant breeders? Agricultural Water Management 78: 15-24.
Francois, L.E., Grieve, C.M., Maas, E.V., and Lesch, S.M., 1994. Time of salt stress affects growth and yield components of irrigated wheat. Agronomy Journal 86(1): 100-107.
Gomaa, E.F., 2013. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizers on quinoa plant. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 9(8): 5210-5222.
Gómez‐Pando, L. R., Álvarez‐Castro, R., & Eguiluz‐De La Barra, A. 2010. Effect of salt stress on Peruvian germplasm of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: a promising crop. Journal of agronomy and crop science, 196(5), 391-396.
Harper, J.E., 1994. Nitrogen Metabolism. In: K.J. Boote J.M. Bennett T.R. Sinclair and Paulsen G.M. (Eds). Physiology and determination of crop yield. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: 285-302
Hassan Aghli, A., 2005. Drainage Management from Drainage Systems and Its Reuse in Agriculture, Fourth Drainage and Environment Technical Workshop, Tehran, National Irrigation and Drainage Committee, (In Persian)
Hooshmand, A., and Behdarvandi, H., 2007. Assessing the quality of agricultural drains of Karun agro-industry for reuse in agriculture. The Second National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Networks Management, Ahvaz, Chamran University, Iran. (In Persian)
Hunt, R., 1978. Plant Growth Analysis. The institute of biology’s studies. Edward Arnold, London, UK. 96(37).
Jacobsen, S.E., Liu, F., and Jensen, C.R., 2009. Does root-sourced ABA play a role for regulation of stomata under drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Scientia Horticulturae 122: 281-287.
Jamali, S., Sharifan, H., Hezar Jaribi, A., and Sepahvand, N.A., 2016. Investigation of the effect of different salinity levels on germination and growth indices of two cultivars of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Protection of Water and Soil Resources 6(1): 87-97. (In Persian with English Summary)
Jodi, F., Tobeh, A., Ebadi, A., Mostafaee, H., and Jamaatisamaren, S., 2011. Effect of Nitrogen on yield, yield components, agronomic efficiency and nitrogen on lentil genotypes. Electronic Journal of Plant Production 4(4): 39-50. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kakabouki, I., Bilalis, D., Karkanis, A., Zervas, G., Tsiplakou, E., and Hela, D., 2014. Effects of fertilization and tillage system on growth and crude protein content of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): An alternative forage crop, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26(1): 18-24. DOI:10.9755/ejfa.v26i1.16831
Khanali, M., Yousefinejad, M., Ebrahimi, N., and Dehban, H., 2016. Use of drainage in irrigation of agricultural products. CESET International Conference on Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Kholdebarin, B., and Islamzadeh, T., 2003. Mineral Nutrition of Excellent Plants. Shiraz University Press, Iran.570.  (In Persian)
Koyro, H., and Eisa, S., 2008. Effect of salinity on composition, viability and germination of seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Plant and Soil 302: 79-90.
Khuzestan Water and Power Authoriy Company Report(Kwpa). 2011. Khuzestan province drainage management studies report. 215. (In Persian)
Lotfollahi, M., 2012. Investigation of changes in wheat grain protein through foliar application of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Agriculture and Plant Breeding 8(4): 12-6. (In Persian with English Summary)
Long, N.V., 2016. Effects of salinity stress on growth and yield of quinoa. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences 14(3): 321-27.
Mengel, k., 1992. Nutrition and Metabolism of Plants. Translated by Mohammad Reza Haghparast Tanha. Islamic Azad University of Rasht Publications, Iran. 198 p. (In Persian)
Miranda, M., Vega-Gálvez, A., Martínez, E.A., López, J., Marín, R., Aranda, M., and Fuentes, F., 2013. Influence of contrasting environments on seed composition of two quinoa genotypes: Nutritional and functional properties. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 73(2): 108-116.
Muchow, R.C., 1988. Effect of nitrogen supply on the comparative productivity of maize and sorghum in a semi-arid tropical environment III. Grain yield and nitrogen accumulation. Field Crops Research 18(1): 31-43.
Omar, S.A., Injy, M.M., and Rasha, M.A., 2014. Genetic evaluation of some quinoa genotypes under Ras Suder conditions. Journal of Plant Production, Mansoura University 5(11): 1915-1930.
Peterson, A., and Murphy, K., 2015. Tolerance of lowland quinoa cultivars to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity. Crop Science 55: 331-338.
Prystupa, P., Slafer, G., and Savin, A., 2004. Leaf Appearance, Tillering and their Coordination in Response to N × P Fertilization in Barley. Netherlands: Springer.
Pospisil, A., Pospisil, M., Vaga, B., and Svevnjak, S., 2006. Grain yield and protein concentration of two amaranth species as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy 25: 250-253. DOI:10.1016/j.eja.2006.06.001
Rajiv, K., and Misra, R.L., 2011. Studies on nitrogen application in combination with phosphorus or potassium on gladiolus cv. Jester Gold. Indian Journal Horticultural 68(4): 535-539.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Khorramdel, S., Latifi, H., Farzaneh Belgerdi, M.R., and Davarpanah, S.J., 2021. Optimization of irrigation and nitrogen levels on yield, water use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) by using the surface-response methodology. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research Vol. 19(2): 185-199. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rojas, W., Barriga, P., and Figueroa, H., 2003. Multivariate analysis of genetic diversity of Bolivian quinoa germplasm. Food Reviews International 19: 9–23.
Roggatz, U., Mcdonald, A.J.S., Stadenberg, I., and Schurr, U., 1999. Effects of nitrogen deprivation on cell division and expansion in leaves of Ricinus communis L. Plant Cell Environ 22: 81–89
Sa-Nguansak, T., 2004. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen assimilation and seed quality of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Doctora Dissertation, Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences of the Facultyof Agricultural Sciences, Georg-August-University of Göttingen from Phayao, Thailand, Göttingen, November.
Shabala, S., Hariadi, Y., and Jacobsen, S.E., 2013. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density. Journal of Plant Physiology 170(10): 906-914. DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.01.014
Shams, A.S., 2010. Combat degradation in rainfed areas by introducing new drought tolerant crops in Egypt. 4th International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 5-8 December, pp. 575-582.
Shams, A.S., 2012. Response of quinoa to nitrogen fertilizer rates under sandy soil conditions, Proc. 13th International Conference Agriculture., Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University., Egypt, 9-10 September 2012, p. 195-205.
Shoman, H.A., 2018. Effect of sowing dates and nitrogen on productivity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) at Desert Areas Journal Plant Production, Mansoura Univercity 9(4): 327-332.
Spehar, C.R., and De Barros Santos, R.L., 2005. Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 40(6): 609-612.
Schulte, A.E.G., Kaul, H.P., Kruse, M., and Aufhammer, W., 2005. Yield and nitrogenutilization efficiency of the pseudo cereals amaranth, quinoa, and buck wheat under differing nitrogen fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy 22(1): 95-100.
Szilagyi, L., and Jornsgard, B., 2014. Preliminary agronomicevaluation of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under climatic conditions of Romania. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy., LVII: 339-343.
Talebnejad, R., and Sepaskhah, A.R., 2015. Effect of different saline groundwater depths and irrigation water salinities on yield and water use of quinoa in lysimeter. Agricultural Water Management 148: 177-188.
Thanapornpoonpong, S., 2004. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen assimilation and seed quality of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), Doctoral Dissertation, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, Georg-August-University of Göttingen.
Thanapornpoonpong, S., Vearasilp, E., Pawelzik, S., and Gorinstein, S., 2008. Influence of various nitrogen applications on protein and amino acid profiles of amaranth and quinoa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56: 11464–11470.
United Statets Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1990. National Water Quality Inventory. Report to Congeres. Washington D.C., EPA. 503/9-92-006.
Wilson, C., Read, J.J., and Abo-Kassem, E., 2002. Effect of mixed-salt salinity on growth and ion relations of a quinoa and a wheat variety. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25(12): 2689-2704.
Wu, G., Peterson, A.J., Morris, C.F., and Murphy, K.M., 2016. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 790. (In Persian)
Yazar, A., Incekaya, C., Sezen, S.M., and Jacobsen, S.E., 2015 Saline water irrigation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under Mediterranean conditions. Crop and Pasture Science 66: 993–1002.
Yazar A., Metin S., Yeşim, S.B., Çiğdem, İ., and Servet, T., 2017. Effect of planting times and saline irrigation of quinoa using drainage water on yield and yield components under the Mediterranean environmental conditions. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry 4(8): 8-16.
Zangani, A., Kashani, A., Fathi, G.H., and Meskarbashi, M., 2007. Effect of different nitrogen levels on yield andyield components of two cultivars of rapeseed quantity and quality in Ahwaz. Journal of Agriculture Sciences 39-45. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zhao, D., Reddy, K.R., Kakani, V.G., Read, J.J., and Koti, S., 2005. Selection of optimum reflectance ratios for estimating leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations of field-grown cotton. Agronomy Journal 97: 89–98.
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Serial Number 54
December 2023
Pages 671-691
  • Receive Date: 28 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 24 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 27 July 2021
  • First Publish Date: 27 July 2021