Effects of Different Tillage Systems, Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates, and Mycorrhiza Inoculation on some Soil Physical Properties and Yield of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.)

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran.

2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran.

3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran


Tillage intensity and tillage system can affect biological, physical, and chemical properties of the soil. Suitable soil management is essential to achieve sustainable agricultural production especially in drought-prone regions. More application of machineries in a tillage system will result in more soil compaction which in turn increases soil bulk density and decreases its air and water permeability. Additionally, it has been well documented that the compact soil hampers the downward growth of the crop roots. The soil with good physical quality will provide aeration and water as well as non-impeditive mechanical resistance for root proliferation. Moldboard plowing is currently applied in around 65% of tillage practices although the agricultural extension services have tried to convince farmers to apply reduced tillage system by replacing moldboard plow with chisel plow to mitigate adverse effects of moldboard plowing especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Conservation tillage practices, especially reduced tillage, have been introduced to Iranian farmers since 1999. Mycorrhiza is the product of an association between a fungus and plant root that enhance the tolerance levels of plants against the drought, salinity and high heavy metal contents. The aim of the present study were to evaluate the effects of tillage systems, nitrogen levels, and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield and yield components of mung bean and soil criteria.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in Darehshahr research field in two growing seasons (2017 and 2018). The experimental layout was split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of three tillage systems as conventional, conservation and no tillage as main plot, four nitrogen levels including 0% (as control), 33%, 66% and 100% of recommended fertilizer as sub plot, and two levels of mycorrhiza fungi inoculation (Contains arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi of Glomus mosseae strains, counting 107 to 108 (CFU / g.) Prepared by Soil and Water Research Institute) (no symbiosis (as control) and with symbiosis) as sub-sub-plot. Studied traits were yield components (such as 1000-seed weight, No. of seeds per pod, No. of pods per plant), seed yield and harvest index of mung bean and moisture content, cone index and organic carbon percent of soil. For analysis of variance SAS 9.4 was used. All the means were compared according to Duncan test (p≤0.05).
Results and Discussion
The results revealed that the highest 1000-seed weight (57.48 g) was obtained from no-tillage and the highest number of seeds per pod (10.64 seeds per pod) and the number of pods per plant (61.04 pods per plant) were obtained from conservation tillage. The highest seed yield was obtained from conservation tillage + application of 100% N fertilizer with 2941 kg.ha-1. The highest seed weight, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant were obtained from 66% N fertilizer application. Mycorrhiza inoculation increased harvest index, seed yield and its components. The soil bulk density in the no-tillage system had the highest value. The maximum and the minimum soil moisture contents were observed for non-tillage and conventional tillage systems, respectively.
The highest soil cone index (2.25 MPa) was obtained from no-tillage and 66% N fertilizer and the lowest (1.07 MPa) was for conventional tillage system+ without nitrogen application. The highest and the lowest soil organic carbon were related to no-tillage and conventional tillage systems with 0.68% and 0.32%, respectively.
In general, the conservation tillage system+ application of 66% N fertilizer and inoculation with mycorrhiza had a relative advantage impact on yield and related traits. In addition, the soil physical traits and organic carbon content were improved affected as declined tillage systems. The long-term field experiment points out the beneficial impacts of reduced tillage and no tillage systems that, in addition to preserving both soil physical (such as cone index) and chemical criteria (and organic carbon), fertility and biological activity, could increase yield and exhibit a comparable yield over a long-term period as in conventional plough. Currently, there is no mung bean variety appropriate to Iran. Improving some varieties with higher yield which are tolerant to warm climate and water deficiency seems essential to improve the sustainability of local seed production. Investigating into the effect of mung bean tillage and fertilizer consumption on the weed type and density is also suggested for future studies.


Main Subjects

Aikins, S.H.M., and Afuakwa, J.J., 2012. Effect of four different tillage practices on soil physical properties under cowpea. The Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 3: 17-24.
Almagro, M., de Vente, J., Boix-Fayos, C., García-Franco, N., Melgares de Aguilar, J., González, D., Solé-Benet, A., and Martínez-Mena, M., 2016. Sustainable land management practices as providers of several ecosystem services under rainfed mediterranean agroecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 21: 1029–1043.
Al-Shammary, A.A.G., Kouzani, A.Z., Kaynak, A., Khoo, S.Y., Norton, M., and Willgates, W.G.M., 2018. Soil bulk density estimation methods: A Review. Pedosphere 28(4): 581-596.
Arumugam, R., Rajasekaran, S., and Nagarajan, S.M., 2010. Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium inoculation on growth and chlorophyll content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. The Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 14(4): 113–115.
Bahrani, A., Hamedi, S., and Tadayon, M.S., 2013. Response of wheat and barley to nitrogen and drought stress. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology 5: 1-14. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bedini, S., Pellegrion E., Avio, L., Pellegrini, S., Bazzoffi, P., Argese, E., and Giovannetti, M., 2009. Changes in soil aggregation and glomalin related soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal species (Glomus mosseae) and (Glomus intraradices). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 1491-1496.
Bradford, J.M., 1986. Penetrability. In: klute, A. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Soil Science Society of America, Madison. WI, pp. 468-472.
Brenton, S., Wendling, L., and Feng, G., 2012. Surface characteristics of a windblown soil altered by tillage intensity during summer fallow. Aeolian Research 5: 1-7.
Candido, V., Campanelli, G., D’Addabbo, T., Castronuovo, D., Perniola, M., and Camele, I., 2015. Growth and yield promoting effect of artificial mycorrhization on field tomato at different irrigation regimes. Scientia Horticulturae 187: 35-43.
Chamizo, S., Serrano-Ortiz, P., López-Ballesteros, A., Sánchez-Cañete, E.P., Vicente-Vicente, J.L., and Kowalski, A.S., 2017. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange in an irrigated olive orchard of SE Spain: Influence of weed cover. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 239: 51-64.
Cook, R.J., and Hauguland, W.A., 1991. Wheat yield depressing associated with conservation tillage caused by root pathogens in the soil, hot phytotoxins from the straw. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23: 1125-1133.
Davis, M.R., Alves, B.J.R., Karlen, D.L., Kline, K.L., Galdos, M., and Abulebdeh, D., 2018. Review of soil organic carbon measurement Protocols: A U.S. and Brazil comparison and recommendation. Sustainability 10: 53.
Erman, M., Demir, S., Ocak, E., Tüfenkçi, S., Oğuz, and Akköprü, A., 2011. Effects of Rhizobium, arbuscular mycorrhiza and whey applications on some properties in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under irrigated and rainfed conditions 1—Yield, yield components, nodulation and AMF colonization. Earth Science 122: 14-24.
Ercoli, L., Lulli, L., Marryotti, M., Masoni, A., and Arduini, I., 2008. Post-anthesis dry matter and nitrogen dynamics in durum wheat as affected by nitrogen supply and soil water availability. European Journal of Agronomy 28: 138-147.
Fernandez-Ugalde, O., Virto, I., Bescansa, P., Imaz, M.J., Enrique, A., and Karlen, D.L., 2009. No tillage improvement of soil physical quality in calcareous, degradation-prone, semiarid soils. Soil and Tillage Research 106: 29-35.
García-Díaz, A., Marqués, M.J., Sastre, B., and Bienes, R., 2018. Labile and stable soil organic carbon and physical improvements using groundcovers in vineyards from central Spain. Science of the Total Environment 621: 387–397.
Garcia-Franco, N., Martinez-Mena, M., Goberna, M., and Albaladejo, J., 2015. Changes in soil aggregation and microbial community structure control carbon sequestration after afforestation of semiarid shrublands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 87: 110–121
Ghanta, R., Dutta, S., and Mukhopadhyay, R., 2013. Investigation on arbuscular mycorrhiza alliances in some threatened medicinal herbs of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 7(7): 315-323.
Gill, S.M., 2012. Temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties under different soil management practices. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Gogoi, P., and Singh, R.K., 2011. Differential effect of some arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on growth of (Piper longum L.) (Piperaceae). Indian Journal of Science and Technology 4(2): 119-125.
Gozubuyuk, Z., Sahin, U., Ozturk, I., Celik, A., and Adiguzel, M.C., 2014. Tillage effects on certain physical and hydraulic properties of a loamy soil under a crop rotation in a semi-arid region with a cool climate. Catena 118: 195-205.
Grabowski, P.P., Haggblade, S., Kabwe, S., and Tembo, G., 2014. Minimum tillage adoption among commercial smallholder cotton farmers in Zambia, 2002 to 2011. Agricultural Systems 131: 34–44.
Habibzadeh, Y., Jalilian, J., Zardashti, M.R., Pirzad, A., and Eini, O., 2015. Some morpho-physiological characteristics of mung bean mycorrhizal plants under different irrigation regimes in field condition. Journal of Plant Nutrition 38(11): 1754-1767.
Halvorson, A.D., Black, A.L., Krupinsky, J.M., and Merrill, S.D., 1999. Dryland winter wheat response to tillage and nitrogen within an annual cropping system. Agronomy Journal 91: 702–707.
Halvorson, A.D., Black, A.L., Krupinsky, J.M., Merrill, S.D., Wienhold, B.G., and Tanaka, D.L., 2000. Spring wheat response to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rotation with sunflower and winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 92: 136-144.
Halvorson, A.D., Wienhold, B.J., and Black, A.L., 2001. Tillage and nitrogen fertilization influence grain and soil nitrogen in an annual cropping system. Agronomy Journal 93: 836–841.
He, Y., Dong, Y., Xiao, S., Peng, Q., Liu, X., and Sun, L., 2013. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil microbial biomass and community functional diversity in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Clean- Soil, Air, Water 41: 1216–1221.
Hemmat, A., and Eskandari, I., 2004. Tillage system effects upon productivity of a dryland winter wheat–chickpea rotation in the northwest region of Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 69-81.
Houshyar, E., and Esmailpour, M., 2020. The impacts of tillage, fertilizer and residue managements on the soil properties and wheat production in a semi-arid region of Iran. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 19: 225–232.
Ilbas, A.I., and Sahin, S., 2005. Glomus fasciculatum inoculation improves soybean production. Acta Agriculture Scandinavica 55(4): 287-292
Jabro, J.D., Stevens, W.B., Evans, R.G., and Iversen, W.M., 2009. Tillage effects on physical properties in two soils of the Northern Great Plains. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 25: 377-382.
Kabiri, V., Raiesi, F., and Ghazavi, M.A., 2015. Six years of different tillage systems affected aggregate associated SOM in a semi-arid loam soil from central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 154: 114–125.
Kihara, J., Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kimetu, J.M., Vanlauwe, B., Okeyo, J., Mukalama, J., and Martius, C., 2012. Effect of reduced tillage and mineral fertilizer application on maize and soybean productivity. Experimental Agriculture 48(2): 159–175.
Kristensen, H.L., Debosz, K., and Mccarty, G.W., 2003. Short-term effects of tillage on mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35: 979–986.
Lal, R., 1991. Soil structure and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 1: 67-92.
Lapen, D.R., Topp, G.G., Edwards, M.E., and Curnol, W.E., 2004. Combination cone penetration resistance water content instrumentation to evaluated cone penetration-water content relationships in tillage research. Soil and Tillage Research 79: 51-62.
Liang, Y., Nikolic, M., Peng, Y., and Chen, W., 2005. Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 1185-1195.
López-Garrido, R., Madejón, E., León-Camacho, M., Girón, I., Moreno, F., and Murillo, J.M., 2014. Reduced tillage as an alternative to no-tillage under mediterranean conditions: A case study. Soil and Tillage Research 140: 40–47.
Lou, Y., Xu, M., Chen, X., He, X., and Zhao, K., 2012. Stratification of soil organic C, N and C: N ratio as affected by conservation tillage in two maize fields of China. Catena 95: 124–130.
Luo, Z., Gan, Y., Niu, Y., Zhang, R., Li, L., Cai, L., and Xie, J., 2017. Soil quality and crop yield under long-term tillage systems. Experimental Agriculture 53(4): 497–511.
Martínez-Mena, M., Garcia-Franco, N., Almagro, M., Ruiz-Navarro, A., Albaladejo, J., de Aguilar, J.M., Gonzalez, D., and Querejeta, J.I., 2013. Decreased foliar nitrogen and crop yield in organic rainfed almond trees during transition from reduced tillage to notillage in a dryland farming system. European Journal of Agronomy 49: 149–157.
Mbuthia, L.W., Acosta-Martínez, V., DeBruyn, J., Schaeffer, S., Tyler, D., Odoi, E., Mpheshea, M., Walker, F., and Eash, N., 2015. Long term tillage, cover crop, and fertilization effects on microbial community structure, activity: Implications for soil quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 89: 24–34.
Mc-Vaya, K.A., Buddea, J.A., Fabrizzia, K., Mikhab, M., Ricea, C.W., Schlegelc, A.J., Petersona, D.E., Sweeneyd, D.W., and Thompson, C., 2006. Management effects on soil physical properties in long-term tillage studies in Kansas. Soil Science 70: 434-438.
Mohammad, W., Shah, S., Shehzadi, S., and Shah, S., 2012. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed) of north-west Pakistan. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12: 715-727.
Montemurro, F., and Giorgio, D., 2005. Quality and nitrogen use efficiency of sunflower grown at different nitrogen levels under mediterranean conditions. Journal of plant Nutrition 28: 335-350.
Morugán-Coronado, A., Linares, C., Gómez-López, M.D., Faz, Á., and Zornoza, R., 2020. The impact of intercropping, tillage and fertilizer type on soil and crop yield in fruit orchards under mediterranean conditions: A meta-analysis of field studies. Agricultural Systems 178: 102736.
Mosaddeghi, M.R., Mahboubi, A.A., and Safadoust, A., 2009. Short-term effects of tillage and manure on some soil physical properties and maize root growth in a sandy loam soil in western Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 104: 173–179.
Mu, X., Zhao, Y., Liu, K., Ji, B., Guo, H., Xue, Z., and Li, C., 2016. Responses of soil properties, root growth and crop yield to tillage andcrop residue management in a wheat-maize cropping system on the North China Plain. European Journal of Agronomy 78: 32–43.
Narimatsu, K.C.P., De-Mello, L.M., Domingues, L.S., Chioderoli, C., and Lima, R., 2014. Corn productivity in function of surface application of lime in different management systems and cultural preparation. Engenharia and Agricultural Jaboticabal 34(2): 254-262.
O’Kelly, B.C., 2004. Accurate determination of moisture content of organic soils using the oven drying method. Drying Technology 22(7): 1767-1776.
Oberholzer, H.R., Leifeld, J., and Mayer, J., 2014. Changes in soil carbon and crop yield over 60 years in the Zurich Organic Fertilization experiment, following land-use change from grassland to cropland. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 177: 696–704.
Olaoye, J.O., 2002. Influence of tillage on crop residue cover, soil properties and yield components of cowpea in derived savannah ectones of Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 64: 179-187.
Pala, M., Haddad, A., and Piggin, C., 2007. Challenges and opportunities for conservation cropping: ICARDA experience in dry areas. pp. 165-182. The Proceedings of the International Workshop on Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Land Management to Improve the Livelihood of People in Dry Areas.
Palese, A.M., Vignozzi, N., Celano, G., Agnelli, A.E., Pagliai, M., and Xiloyannis, C., 2014. Influence of soil management on soil physical characteristics and water storage in a mature rainfed olive orchard. Soil and Tillage Research 144: 96–109.
Piggin, C., Haddad, A., Khalil, Y., Loss, S., and Pala, M., 2015. Effects of tillage and time of sowing on bread wheat, chickpea, barley and lentil grown in rotation in rainfed systems in Syria. Field Crops Research 173: 57–67.
Pittelkow, C.M., Linquist, B.A., Lundy, M.E., Liang, X., Van Groenigenc, K.J., Lee, J., Van Gestelc, N., Six, J., Venterea, R.T., and Van Kessel, C., 2020. When does no-till yield more? A global meta-analysis. Agricultural Systems 178: 102736.
Rajput, R.J., 1992. Relationship between N and K in maize. Abstracts of Botany Journal 43: 1693.
Rieger, S., Richner, W., Streit, B., Frossard, E., and Liedgens, M., 2008. Growth, yield, and yield components of winter wheat and the effects of tillage intensity preceding crops, and N fertilisation. European Journal of Agronomy 28: 405–411.
Romaneckas, K., Romaneckienė, R., Šarauskis, E., Pilipavičius, V., and Sakalauskas, A., 2009. The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, and sugar beet growth and weed infestation. Agronomy Research 7: 73-86.
Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Bienes, R., Eldridge, D.J., and Marques, M.J., 2013. Vegetation cover reduces erosion and enhances soil organic carbon in a vineyard in the central Spain. Catena 104: 153–160.
Sabia, E., Claps, S., Morone, G., Bruno, A., Sepe, L., and Aleandri, R., 2015. Field inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza on maize (Zea mays L.) under low inputs: preliminary study on quantitative and qualitative aspectsItalian Journal of Agronomy 10(1): 607.
Seddaiu, G., Iocola, I., Farina, R., Orsini, R., Lezzi, G., and Roggero, P.P., 2016. Long term effects of tillage practices and N fertilization in rainfed mediterranean cropping systems: Durum wheat, sunflower and maize grain yield. European Journal of Agronomy 77: 166–178.
Sekwakwa, O., and Dikinya, O., 2012. Tillage-induced compaction: Effects on physical properties of agricultural loamy soils. Scientific Research and Essays 7: 1584-1591.
Shirani, H., Hajabbasi, M.A., Afyuni, M., and Hemmat, A., 2002. Effect of farmyard manure and tillage systems on soil physical properties and corn yield in central of Iran. Soil and Tillage Research Journal 68: 101-108.
Shirani, H., Hajabbasi, M.A., Afyuni, M., and Hemmat, A., 2002. Effect of farmyard manure and tillage systems on soil physical properties and corn yield in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 101–108.
Simoes, M.P., Belo, A.F., Pinto-Cruz, C., and Pinheiro, A.C., 2014. Natural vegetation management to conserve biodiversity and soil water in olive orchards. The Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 12: 633–643.
Singh, B.R., and Haile, M., 2007. Impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on yield, nitrogen use efficiency of (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and soil properties. Soil and Tillage Research 94: 55-63.
Singh, Y., Ladha Khind, J.K., and Bueno, C.S., 2004. Effects of residue decomposition on productivity and soil fertility in rice-barley rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 854-864.
Smith, S.E., Facelli, E., Pope, S., and Smith, F.A., 2010. Plant performance in stressful environments: interpreting new and established knowledge of the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Plant and Soil 326(1-2): 3-20.
Sohrabi, S.S., Fateh, A., Aynehband, A., and Rahnema, A., 2014. Study the effect of residue management and different nitrogen sources on wheat yield. Journal of Agroecology 6(3): 645-655. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sudheesh, M., and Ken, F., 2014. Soil water conservation and nitrous oxide emissions from different crop sequences and fallow under mediterranean conditions. Soil and Tillage Research 143: 123-129.
Sultana, S., Ullah, J., Karim, F., and Asaduzzaman, M.D., 2009. Response of mung bean to integrated nitrogen and weed managements. American Eurasian Journal of Agronomy 2(2): 104-108.
Treseder, K.K., 2008. Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: A meta-analysis of ecosystem studies. Ecology Letters 11: 1111-20.
Turk, M.A., Tawaha, A.M., and El-Shatnawi, M.K.J., 2003. Response of lentil to plant density, sowing date, phosphorus fertilization and ethephon application in the absence of moisture stress. Journal of Agronomy 189: 1-6.
Wilson, G.W.T., Rice, C.W., Rillig, M.C., Springer, A., and Hartnett, D.C., 2009. Soil aggregation and carbon sequestration are tightly correlated with the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi: Results from long-term field experiments. Ecology Letter 12: 452-461.
Wolff, M.W., Alsina, M.M., Stockert, C.M., Khalsa, S.D.S., and Smart, D.R., 2018. Minimum tillage of a cover crop lowers net GWP and sequesters soil carbon in a California vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 175: 244–254.
Wolton, W., 2005. Leaf area index and radiation as related to corn yield. Agronomy Journal 65: 459–46.
Wright, A.L., Dou, F., and Hons, F.M., 2007. Soil organic C and N distribution for wheat cropping systems after 20 years of conservation tillage in central Texas. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121: 736-744.
Zornoza, R., Acosta, J.A., Bastida, F., Domínguez, S.G., Toledo, D.M., and Faz, A., 2015. Identification of sensitive indicators to assess the interrelationship between soil quality, management practices and human health. Soil 1: 173–185.
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Serial Number 50
December 2022
Pages 739-757
  • Receive Date: 24 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 04 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 09 June 2021
  • First Publish Date: 09 June 2021