Effects of Different Levels of NPK Fertilizer and Fulvic Acid on Morphogical Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of Basil as a Medicinal Plant (Ocimum basilicum L.)

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Birjand,

2 birjand

3 University of Birjand

4 Birjand


Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an herbaceous medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family with a wide range of applications in culinary, cosmetic, food, perfumery and medical industries. The presence of more than 200 chemicals includes flavonoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes and aromatic compounds in basil oil have been identified. The main components of its oil are eugenol, methyleugenol, linalool, estragole and anethole, varying by chemotype. Basil is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran, which is widely used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, sanitary and food industries, and it is considered as an anti-fluff and appetizer in traditional medicine. Therefore, in order to maximize yield and increase the length of the basil production period, the appropriate management of this product is necessary. Among which the use of suitable nutritional elements is one of the useful ways to improve the performance of this plant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of NPK fertilizer and fulvic acid, and their interaction on vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of Basil's medicinal plant.
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effects of applications of fulvic acid and NPK fertilizer on yield and growth characteristics of basil were evaluated under field conditions. Treatments were three levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 3 and 6 per thousand) and three levels of fulvic acid (0, 5 and 10 kg.ha-1). The experiment was designed as factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research station of Faculty of Agriculture University of Birjand during growing season of 2017. The measured indices including vegetative characteristics (plant height, laterals number.plant-1, plant weight (g.m-2), leaf weight(g), leaves No.plant-1) and reproductive characteristics (grain yield, 1000-seed weight, seed number, biological yield and harvest index). Finally, the experimental data were statistically analyzed using SAS program ver. 9.2 and means were separated Duncan multiple test at 5% probability level of probability.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that NPK fertilizer had a significant effect on vegetative characteristics (plant height, fresh and dry weight of plant (g.m-2), lateral number per plant and leaves No.plant-1), so that the highest plant height and biological yield (48.4 cm and 2.16 kg.m-2, respectively) were obtained with application of six per thousand of NPK fertilizer. The results showed that NPK fertilizer had significant effect on 1000-seed weight. The highest 1000-seed weight (1.6 g) was obtained at six per thousand of NPK fertilizer, and the lowest of 1000- seed weight, (1.4 g) was observed in the control. Fulvic acid affected vegetative characteristics (plant height and laterals number per plant), so that the highest plant height and laterals number.plant-1 (46.0 cm and 15.88 per plant) was obtained with the application of 10 kg.ha-1 fulvic acid treatment. Also, the results showed a significant effect of fulvic acid on reproductive characteristics (plant weight (g.m-2), 1000- seed weight (g)). The highest leaves No.plant-1 (129.5) and 1000- seed weight (1.5g) were obtained at 10 kg .ha-1 fulvic acid, and the lowest of plant weight, 1000-seed weight were observed in the control. The interactions showed that the highest biological yield (2.29 kg.m-2) and plant  dry weight (483.83 g.m-2) were obtained from treatment at six per thousand of  NPK fertilizer and 10 kg.ha-1 fulvic acid and the lowest amounts (1.44 kg.m-2 and 259.5 g.m-2) was obtained from control.
The results of this study showed that fulvic acid and NPK fertilizer had significant effect on yield and growth characteristics of basil. Thus, results showed that fulvic acid (10 kg.ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (six per thousand) had strong impact on yield and growth characteristics of basil under field conditions.
Authors are grateful to Ebrahim Ebrahimabadi for their help with the field experiments.


Aminifard, M.H., and Ahmadi, F., 2019. Effects of of fulvic acid and cow manure on stigma active components and petal Antiradical Activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Saffron Agronomy & Technology 6(4): 415-428. (In Persian with English Summary)
Anwar, M., Chand, S., and Patra, D., 2010. Effect of graded levels of NPK on fresh herb yield, oil yield and oil composition of six cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 1: 74 -79.
Arabaci, D., and Bayram, E., 2004., The effect of nitrogen fertilization and different plant densities on some agronomic and technologic characteristic of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agronomy 3(4): 255-262. (In Persian with English Summary)
Asadi, Gh., Rezvani Moghaddam, p., and Hasanzadeh Aval, F., 2014. Effects of soil and foliar applications of nutrients on corm growth and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in sixyear-old farm. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 2(1): 31-44. (In Persian with English Summary)
Atiyeh, M., Lee, S., Edwards, A., Arancon, Q., and Metzger, J., 2002. The influence of humic acid derived from earthworm-processed organic waste on plant growth. Bioresource Technology 8: 7-14.
Azizi, M., Lakzian, A., and Bagani, M., 2007. Effect of different amount of vermicompost and vermivash on morphological factors and essential oil content of basil. Agriculture Sciences 2: 5-8. (In Persian with English Summary)
Besford, T., and Maw, A., 1976. Effect of potassium nutrition on some enzymes of the tomato plant. Annals of Botany 40: 461-471.
BoyeridahSheikh, P., Mahmudi Surstani, M., Zolfaghari, M., and Enayati Zamir, N., 2017. Study of the effects of biomass, chemical, and humic acid on vegetative, physiological, and essential oil levels of cat Peppermint. Journal of Plant Production Research 24(2): 61-76 (In Persian with English Summary)
Ebadi, T., Fallahi, J., Azizi, M., and Rezvani Moghadam, P., 2008. Investigating the effect of the use of organic fertilizers on growth factors and the efficiency of two modified cultivars of German chamomilla. The First National Conference on Management and Sustainable Agriculture Development in Iran, Institute for Scientific Research and Technology Knowledge, Shoshtar, p. 112-117 (In Persian).
Fatemi, H., Ameri, A., Amini Fard, M.H., and honey, H., 2011. Effect of humic acid on essences and vegetative properties of basil. The first national conference on modern topics in agriculture. Saveh. Islamic Republic of Iran Islamic Azad University.43-53 (In Persian)
Huber, A., and Schulz, H., 1997. Effect of pressure and shading on some turfgrass species and cultivars. Rasen-Turf-Gazon 28(2):36-40.
Hussein, M.E., Abou El Hassan, S., and Shahein, M.M., 2015. Effect 0f humic, fulvic acid and calcium foliar application on growth and yield of tomato plants. International Journal of Biological Sciences 7(1): 132- 140.
Jahan, M., Ghalaa Nawi, Sh., Khamoushi, A., and Amiri, M., 2015. Investigation of agro-ecological characteristics of basil under the influence of superabsorbent application of moisture, acidification and irrigation periods. The Horticulture Journal (2): 254-240. (In Persian with English Summary)
Jami al-Ahmadi, M., Parsa, Q., and Laleh, Q., 2006. Effect of different levels of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, harvest index and percentage of extract of cannabis herb. Iranian Journal of Crop Research 15 (4): 837-823.
Jalota, S., Sood, A., Vitale, J., and Srinivasan, R., 2007. Simulated crop yields response to irrigation water and economic analysis. Agronomy Journal 99(4): 1073-1084. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khalilidarini, K., Armin, M., and Marvi, H., 2014. The effect of the amount and frequency of complete fertilizer foliar application on quantitative and qualitative yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Crop Science Research Dry Land 1(1): 85-100 (In Persian with English Summary)
Kumar, R., Meena, S.S., Kakani, R.K., Mehta, R.S., and Meena, N.K., 2015. Response of crop geometry, fertilizer levels and genotypes on productivity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). International Journal of Seed Spices 5(1): 63-67.
Karimi Nejad, M., Pazaki, A.R., and Fouladi Taraghi, AS., 2016. An investigation on the effects of quantities and methods of full fertilizer utilization on the yield and yield components of maize cultivars in the city of Rey. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding 12(4): 33-15.
Khan, S., Farhatuliah, I., and Khalil, H., 2008. Phenotypic correlation analysis of elite F3:4 Brassica populations for quantitative and qualitative traits. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 3(1): 38-42.
Lima, R., Moreno, A., Diniz, E., Olea, R., Sasaki, J., Mendes Filho, J., Freire, P., Pontes, F., Leite, E., and Longo, E., 2004. Characterization of a crystal grown from (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves and branches. Crystal Research and Technology 39(10): 864-867.
Leithy, S., El-Meseiry, T., and Abdallah, F., 2006. Effect of biofertilizer, cell stabilizer and irrigation regime onRosemary herbage oil quality. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2: 773-779.
Malakouti, M.J., and Riazi Hamedani, S.A., 1991. Fertilizer and Fertility. University of Tehran press. 800p. (In Persian).
Malakouti, M.J., and Homayi, M., 1994. Soil Fertility of Arid Regions (Problems and Solutions). Tarbiat Modarres University Publications, Tehran, Iran. 518p. (In Persian)
Mediavilla, V., Jonquera, M., Schmid-Slembrouck, I., and Soldati, A., 1998. Decimal code for growth stage of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Journal of the International Hemp Association 5 (2): 68-74.
Moradi, S. 2015. Impact of sheep manure, urea and triple superphosphate on onion morphological properties. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences 4(2): 167-170.
Naderi Boroujerdi, GH., and Madani, H., 2014. Investigating the effect of chemical fertilizers on performance characteristics and essential oil in Zoosha. New Agricultural Findings 8(4): 354-361. (In Persian with English Summary)
Naderi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A., and Vianello, A., 2002. Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 1527–1536.
Naghibi, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R., and Balandri, A., 2014. Effect of ecological fertilizer management on some breeding characteristics of chickpea plant (cichorium pumilum L.). Iranian Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding 13: 17-31.(In Persian with English Summary)
Noorzad, S., Ahmadian, A., and Danzfar, A., 2014. Effect of drought stress on yield, yield components and essential oil of coriander medicinal plant, affected by organic and chemical fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Crops 16(2): 289-302 (In Persian with English Summary)
Niakan, M., Khavarynejad, R.A., and Rezaee, M.B., 2004. Effect of different rates of NPK fertilizer on leaf fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area and oil content in (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research 20(2): 131-148 (In Persian with English Summary)
Ojecqlu, F., 2007. Effect of inoculation with biological fertilizers (Azotobacter and Fertilizer Phosphate) on growth, yield and yield components of Safflower. Master's degree in agriculture, faculty of agriculture, Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran (In Persian with English Summary).
Omidbaigi, R., 2006. Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants. Astan Ghods Razavi Publication, Mashhad 397p (In Persian)
Omidbaigi, R., 1997. Approaches to Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants (Vol 2). Tarrahane Nashr, Mashhad, Iran, 424p (In Persian)
Ozcan, M., Derya, A.M., and Unver, A., 2005. Effect of drying methods on the mineral content of Basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Food Engineering 69: 375-379.
Rahimzadeh, S., Sohrabi, Y., Heydari, G.h., Eyvazi, E.A., and Hosseini, T., 2011. Application effect of chemical and biological fertilizers on yield and percentage of essential oil of moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research 27(1): 81-96 (In Persian with English Summary)
Rahimzadeh, S., Sohrabi, Y., Heydari, G., and Pirzadeh, A., 2011. Effect of bio and chemical fertilizers on yield and quality of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences 25: 335-343 (In Persian with English Summary)
Ruzbahani, A., Ghorbani, P., Mirzaie M., and Aroijnia, S., 2013. Study of the effect of humic acid and fluox acid on yield and yield components of barley. Agronomy Plant Breeding 9 (2): 33-25.
Sabzevari, S., Zarei, H., and Kafi, M., 2003.The effect of humic acid on root and aerial growth of saeones and sabalan Wheat cultivars. Science and Technology of Agriculture 34: 92-98 (In Persian with English Summary).
Saikia, P., Devdutt Chaturvedi, D., Goswami, A., and Rao, P., 2010. Artemisinin and its derivatives: a novel class of anti-malarial and anti-cancer agents. Chemical Society Reviews 26: 15.24.
Sammauria, R., and Yadav, R.S., 2008. Effect of Phosphor and zinc application on growth and yield fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and their residual effect on succeeding pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) under irrigated condition of North West Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 78: 61-64.
Samavat, S., and Malakooti, M., 2005. The necessity of using organic acids to increase the quality and quantity of agricultural products. Technical Journal, 463. Sana Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
Shajari, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R., and Nassiri Mahallati, M., 2014. Evaluation of the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on vegetative indices and essential oil content of coriander. Journal of Agricultural Ecology 6(3): 425-443 (In Persian with English Summary)
Shajari, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R., and Nasiri Mahallati, N., 2015. Effects of application of organic, biological, and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of coriander. Journal of Horticulture (Agriculture Sciences and Technology) 29(4): 486-500 (In Persian with English Summary)
Stephen, O.D., 2005. Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction. Pest Manag Science 61: 211–218.
Tahami, K., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jahan, M., 2014. Evaluation of the effects of organic, biological and chemical effects on morphological traits, yield and seed yield components of basil plant. Iranian Journal of Crop Research 12(4): 553-543 (In Persian with English Summary)
Tahir, M., Khurshid, M., Khan, Z., Abbasi, M.K., and Kazmi, H.M., 2011. Lignitederived humic acid effect on growth of wheat plants in different soils. Pedosphere 21: 124-131.
Utayasoorian, C., Balamurgan, P., and Muthuvel, P., 1991. Direct and residual effect of FYM and NPK levels on sunflower. Journal of Madras Agriculture 78: 207-209.
Valadabadi, S. A., Alimohammadi, M., and Daneshian, J., 2007. The evaluation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) consumption on yield and growth of sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Plant and Ecosystem 12: 53-65 (in Persian with English Summary)
Vaughan, D., and Linehan. D.J., 2004. The growth of wheat plants in humic acid solutions under axenic conditions. Plant and Soil 44: 445-449.
Yang, C.M., Yang, L.Z., Yang, Y.X., and Zhu, O.Y., 2004. Rice root growth and nutrient uptake as influenced by organic manure in continuously and alternately flooded paddy soils. Agriculture Water and Management 70: 67–81.
Yeidia, I., Srivastva, A., Kapulink, Y., and Chet, I., 2001. Effect of humic acid on microelement concentration and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant and Soil 235(2): 235-242.
Yildirim, EM., and Unay, A., 2011. Effects of different fertilizations on Liriomyza trifolii in tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(17): 4104-4107.
Zargiri, A., 1989. Medicinal plants. Tehran University Press and Publishing, Tehran, Iran. 427p. (In Persian)