Effect of Symbiosis Mycorrhiza and On-farm Seed Priming on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Saline Soil

Document Type : Scientific - Research


Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran


 There are many methods to deal with salinity, one of which is less costly and more practical seed priming. Seed prime with different methods with mycorrhiza fungi can be used to improve the deposition of seeds and ultimately yield in saline lands. According to available reports, priming seeds are better placed in environmental stress conditions, such as salinity, and produce higher plantings. Priming increases rooting and increases the yield in corn by 14%. The seedling growth rate was seven days earlier than the non-prime. Plants that are inoculated with mycorrhiza will increase growth and yield and maintain the osmotic potential and ionic balance to a normal level and cause resistance to stress conditions.
Materials and Methods
 This research was carried out during two years 2014 and 2015 in two locations in the province of Khouzestan, Gotvand city, with an altitude of 76 meters above sea level and the coordinates of 32 degrees north latitude and 48 degrees east longitude. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications on maize hybrid NS64. The concentration of salicylic acid 0.5 mM within 14 hours, osmopriming with NaCl solution at a concentration of 2 dS.m-1 within 22 hours, tap water within 18 hours were selected as the best combination of on-farm seed priming. The mycorrhiza fungus was taken in strips under the seeds of 20 g.m-2 . Analysis of variance was done using the PROC GLM procedure of the SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).
Results and Discussion
Results showed that all traits in both years and places inoculation with mycorrhiza and priming with salicylic acid, tap water and NaCl solution to the non-inoculate and non-prime increasing significantly and between inoculation with mycorrhiza and Prime treatments, inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid in both place have better condition. Inoculated with mycorrhiza and priming with salicylic acid in saline place increases the leaf area index in the Tasseling, number of seeds per ear, 1000-kernal weight, yield, biological yield, harvest index, the amount of 26.5, 42, 15.5, 62.5, 49.2, 9.3 percent than non- inoculation with mycorrhiza and not prime. The difference between inoculation with mycorrhiza and salicylic acid treatment and non- inoculation with mycorrhiza and non-prime in saline place compared to non-saline place in all traits was higher.
The results showed that application of inoculation with mycorrhiza to non-inoculation and seed priming compared to control (Non-primed) in all measured traits under both saline and non-saline environments were superior in both years. Priming of maize seeds with salicylic acid (0.5 mM for 14 hours) was superior to other pretreatments. Under salinity without prime application and  inoculum  mycorrhiza (Control) the amount of  number of seeds per ear (212), 1000 grain weight (210 g), grain yield (2826 kg.ha-1) were measured, that application of priming  increased all traits and the highest increase was observed in salicylic acid treatment, which increased  grain number in ear (34.4%), 1000 grain weight (10.9%), grain yield (48.7%) compared with not used prime and inoculation with mycorrhiza (control). Inoculation with mycorrhiza increased the number of seeds per ear (19.8%), 1000 grain weight (4.2%), grain yield (23.9%) compared with lack of prime application and inoculation with mycorrhiza (control). Interaction of seed priming and inoculation with mycorrhiza increased all traits. The highest increase was observed in salicylic acid priming treatments and inoculation with mycorrhiza that increased number of seeds per ear (42.4% ), 1000 grain weight (15.7%), grain yield (62.9%) than lack of prime and inoculation with mycorrhiza (Control). In the first year, in comparison to the second year, all measured traits increased due to the favorable temperature and number of sunny hours for growing and inoculation of flowers and filling of grain. Consequently, in both saline and non-saline environment, inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid is suggested as a method for improving crop cultivation of the NS640 cultivar.


Abbott, L.K., and Murphy, D.V. 2007. Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture. Springer. 254 Pp.
Aboutalebian, M. 2004. Osmotic priming of seeds of some wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in warm, temperate and cold regions of Iran a means ofenhancing seed vigour under unsuitable conditions. Thesis of Ph.D, Tehran University. Iran, 224 Pp. (In Persian with English Summary)
Aboutalebian, M.A., Sharifzadeh, F., Jahansouz, M.R., Ahmadi, A., and Naghavi, M.R. 2009. The effect of seed priming on germination stand stablishment and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in three different climate of Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 39(1): 145-154. (In Persian with English Summary).
Aboutalebian, M.A., Zare Ekbtani, G., and Sepehri, A. 2012. Effects of on-farm seed priming with zinc sulfate and urea solutions on emergence properties, yield and yield components of three rainfed wheat cultivars. Annals of Biological Research 3(10): 4790-4796.
Alagawadi, R., and Gaur, A.C. 1988. Associative effect of Rhizobium and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on the yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea. Plant and Soil 105: 241-246.
Afzal, A., Aslam, N., Mahmood, A., Irfan, S., and Ahmad, G. 2006. Enhancement of germination and emergence of canola seeds by different priming techniques. Garden Depesquisa Biotecnology 16 (1):19-34.
Alkaraki, R.B., and Clark, G.N. 1998. Growth, mineral acquisition and water use by water stress under grown wheat mycorrhizal. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21: 263-270.
Ashraf, M., and Foolad, M.R. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment- a shotgun approach to improve germination growth and crop yield under saline and none saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy 88: 223-271.
Auge, R.M., Duan, X., Ebel, R.C., and Stodola, A.J.W. 2001. Non-hydraulic signaling of soil drying in mycorrhizal maize. Planta 193: 74-82.
Basra, S.M.A., Zia, M.N., Mahmood, T., Afzal, I., and Khaliq, A. 2002. Comparison of different invigoration techniques in wheat seeds. Pakistan Journal of Arid Agriculture 32:765- 774.
Bradford, K.J. 1995. Water relations in seed germination. In: Seed Development and Germination (J. Kigel and G. Galili, Eds.), pp. 351-396. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Clark, R.B., and Zeto, S.K. 2000. Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 23 (7): 867-902.
Cochaki, A., Tabrizi, R., and Ghorbani, M. 2008. Effects of biological fertilizers on growth characteristics, yield and quality of medicinal plant, hyssop. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5 (1): 127-137. (In Persian with English summary).
Evelin, H., Giri, B., and Kapoor, R. 2012. Contribution of Glomus intraradices inoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigation of ionic imbalance in NaCl-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum. Mycorrhiza 22: 203-217.
FAO Production Year Book. 2015. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation, Rome, Italy, Available at web site http://faostat.fao.org. 210 Pp.
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Warraich, E.A., and Khaliq, A. 2006. Optimization of hydro-priming techniques for rice seed invigoration.Seed Science and Technology 34:507-512.
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Rehman, H., and Saleem, B.A. 2008. Seed priming enhances the performance of late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by improving chilling tolerance. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 194:55-60.
Foti, S., Cosentino, S.L., Patane, C., and Agosta, G.M.D. 2002. Effects of osmoconditioning upon seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolorL.) under low temperatures. Seed Science and Technology 30: 521-533.
Ghasemi golezani, K., Sheikhzadeh-Mosaddegh, P., and Valizadeh, M. 2008. Effects of hydropriming duration and limited irrigation on field performance of chickpea. Research Journal Seed Science 1 (1): 34-40.
Ghasemi golezani, K., Chadordooz-jeddi, A., Nasrullahzade, S., and Moghaddam, M. 2010. Influence of hydro-priming duration on field performance of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. African Journal Agriculture Research 5(9): 893-897.
Hameed A, Egamberdieva D., Abd_Allah E.F., Hashem Abeer, Kumar A., and Ahmad P. 2014. Salinity stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in plants. In: Use of Microbes for the Alleviation of Soil Stresses, M.Miransari (Ed.), Volume 1, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-9466-9_7, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.
Hamada, A.M., and Al-Hakimi, A.M.A. 2001. Salicylic acid versus salicylic acid salinity-drought induced stress on wheat seedlings. Rostlinna Vyroba 47, 444-450.
Harris, D., Pathan, A.K., Gothkar, P., Joshi, A., Chivasa, W., and Nyamudeca, P. 2009.On-farm seed priming: using participa tory methods to revive and refine a key technology.Agricultural systems 69:151-164.
Harris, D., Raghuwanshi, B.S., Ganwa, J.S., Singh, S.C., Joshi, K.D., Rashid, A., and Hollington, A. 2001. Participatory evaluation by farmers of on- farm seed priming in wheat in India, Nepal and Pakistan. Experimental Agriculture 37:403-415.
Harris, D., Rashid, A., Hollington, P.A., Jasi, L., and Riches, C. 2002. Prospects of improving maize yields with ‘on-farm’ seed priming. In: Rajbhandari.N.P, Ransom.J.K, Adikhari.K, Palme, R.A.F.E (eds).sustainble maize production systems for Nepal: proceeding of a maize symposium held, kathmandn, Nepal. Narc and Cimmyt 180-185.
Harris, D., Rashid, A., Miraj, C., Arif, M., and Shah, H. 2007. “on-farm”seed priming with zinc sulphate solution-Acost-effective way to increase the maize yield of resource poor farmers. Field Crop Research 102:119-127.
Hur, S.N. 1991. Effect of osmoconditioning on the productivity of Italian ryegrass and sorghum under suboptimal conditions. Korean Journal Animal Science 33: 101–105.
Hussein, M.M., Balbaa, L.K., and Gaballah, M.S. 2007. Salicylic acid and salicylic acid salinity effects on growth of maize plants. . Resarch Journal Agriculture Biology Science 3 (4): 321-328.
Imran, M., Mahmood, A., Romheld, V., and Neumann, G. 2013.Nutrient seed priming improves seedling development of maize exposed to low root zone temperatures during early growth. Institue of crop science/Nutritioual crop physiology universitat hohenheim/70599Stuttyart.Germany.
Kant, S., Pahuja, S.S., and Pannu, R.K. 2006. Phenology of wheat under late sown conditions. Tropical Science 44: 9-15.
Kaur, S., Gupta, A.K., and Kaur, N. 2005. Seed priming increase crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolismin chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191: 81-87.
Khaliq, A., and Sanders, F.E. 2000.Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on the yield and phosphorus uptake of field grown barley. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 1691-1696. 30.
Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A., and Wani, P.A. 2007. Role of phosphate-solubilizing micro organisms in sustainable agriculture. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 27: 29-43.
Mehdizadeh, A., Aboutalbian, M.A., Hamzeh'I, J., Ahmadvand, G., and Mousavi, R. 2012. Effect of control weeds and seed priming on yield, yield components and harvest index. Iranian Journal of Agronomic Research 10 (3): 633-622. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad .2015. Agricultural Crop Statistics, Tehran, Iran, Available at web site http://amar.maj.ir. 189 Pp. (In Persian)
Musavi, R., Aboutalebian, M.A., and Sepehri, A. 2012. The effects of on-farm seed priming and planting date on emergence characteristics, yield and yield components of a corn cultivar (SC. 260) in Hamedan. Annals of Biological Research 3 (9): 4427-4434. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rashid, A., Harris, D., Hollington, P.A., and Rafiq, M. 2004. Improving the yield ofmungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan using on-farm seed priming. Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40 (2): 233–244.
Rashid, A., Hollington, P.A., Harris, D., and Khan, P. 2006. On-farm seed priming for barleyon normal, saline and saline sodic soils in NWFP, Pakistan. European Journal of Agronomy 24(3): 276-281.
Roy, N.K., and Srivastava, A.K. 1999. Effect of presoaking seed treatment on germination and amylase activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress conditions. Rachis18: 46-51.
Sung, J.M., Chang, Y.H. 1993. Biochemical activities associated with priming of sweet corn seeds to improve vigor. Seed Science and Technology 21: 97-105.
Tzortzakis, N.N. 2009. Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed germination and seedling vigor in endive and chicory. Horticulture Science 36 (3): 117-125.
Vendan, R.T., and Subramanian, M. 2000. Effect of phosphobacteria with graded levels of phosphate fertilizers on lowland rice. Crop Research 19: 194-197.
Wu, Q.S., Zou, Y.N., and Abd-Allah, E.F. 2014. Mycorrhizal Association and ROS in Plants. In: P. Ahmad (Ed), Oxidative Damage to Plants. (pp. 453- 475.). Elsevier Inc.
Xu, L., Li, X.L., Wu, X.X., Wang, H., Hou, R.Z., Huang, Y.B., and Zhang, X.Z. 2004.Preparation and structural characterization of a new corn anti-oxidative peptide. Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities 25(3), 466–469.
Yarnia, M., Ahmadzadh, A., Farjzadeh Tabrizi, V., and Nori, N. 2008. Priming effect size pigweed seed extract treatment on germination and growth of soybeans. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Science and Technology's seed. Gorgan, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Yonse, O., and Moradi, A. 2015. Effect of Plant Growth Stimulating Bacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi on emergence of seedlings, establishment and growth of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ecotypes under salt stress conditions. Journal of Plant Production Research (In Persian with English Summary)
Zou, Y.N., Liang, Y.C., and Wu, Q.S. 2013. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal responses to salt stress in trifoliate orange: plant growth, root, architecture and soluble sugar accumulation. International Journal Agriculture and Biology 15: 565-569.