تأثیر مدیریت تغذیه‌ای روی عملکرد، کارایی نیتروژن، کربن آلی و نیتروژن خاک در تناوب کلزا (Brassica napus L.)-گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثرات مدیریت تغذیه گیاهان بر عملکرد دانه، کارایی نیتروژن و خصوصیات خاک، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار، در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در طی سال­های 1393-1389 انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل تناوب در دو سطح (کلزا (Brassica napus L.)-سویا (Glycine max L.)-گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) و کلزا-گندم) و تیمارهای کوددهی در نه سطح (1F: اوره؛ 2F: اوره + زئولیت؛ 3F: کمپوست دامی؛ 4F: کمپوست دامی + زئولیت؛ 5F: اوره + کمپوست دامی؛ 6F: اوره + کمپوست دامی + زئولیت؛ 7F: اوره + آزوکمپوست؛ 8F: اوره + آزوکمپوست + زئولیت و 9F: شاهد) به­ترتیب به­عنوان کرت­های اصلی و فرعی بودند. بیشترین عملکرد کلزا و گندم از تیمار تلفیقی 6F در سال دوم آزمایش به مقدار 3571 و 4001 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­ترتیب حاصل شد. بیشترین میزان جذب نیتروژن از تیمار 6F (115 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین مقدار از تیمار 9F (30 و 28 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به­ترتیب برای کلزا و گندم حاصل شد. بیشترین میزان افزایش در کربن آلی خاک از تیمار 4F به میزان 9 درصد و بیشترین کاهش از تیمار 1F به میزان 14 و 17 درصد به­ترتیب برای کلزا و گندم به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد استفاده از کود دامی و زئولیت روشی مناسب برای کاهش کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی، افزایش عملکرد و بهبود پایداری در سیستم­های کشاورزی می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Nutritional Management on Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Canola-Wheat Crop Rotation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Akbari
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy
Tarbiat Modares
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Environmental concerns are raising due to nutrient leaching resulting from agricultural activities. There are new researches activities focusing on the practical management options for lowering nutrient runoff and leaching to the ground water. Alternative farming strategies such as organic and integrated fertilizer management, are being promoted recently because these managements minimize the environmental devastation.
Materials and Methods
This research was carried out at the Experimental Farm of Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (35°41ʹN, 51°19ʹE, 1215 m above sea level), during 2010-2013 growing seasons. Research farm was subjected to shallow plowing in Sep 2010 following by disk to be fully prepared for cultivation practice. Weed control was done chemically by application of Trifluralin (PubChem: 5569, 3.5 lit ha-1) afterward weed biomass using a disk incorporated into the soil. Total area for each experimental unit was 12m2 (4m×3m), the distance between each adjacent plot was one meter. There were 2m gaps between the blocks and 1m alley was also established between each plot to prevent any interferences. The experiment was conducted with a split-plot layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Crop rotation (Canola-Soybean-Wheat (C1) and Canola-Wheat (C2)) provided the whole-plot treatments with nine fertilization management (F1: urea, F2: urea + zeolite, F3: composted manure, F4: composted manure + zeolite, F5: urea + composted manure, F6: urea+ composted manure + zeolite, F7: urea+ azocompost, F8: urea+ azocompost + zeolite and F9: Control) providing the sub-plots.
Results and Discussion
The variance analysis showed that fertilizer treatment main effect and interaction effects of year × fertilizer treatments, significantly affected all parameters including dry matter yield (DMY), seed yield (SY), amount of nitrogen absorbed (TNU), soil nitrogen (SN), soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen crop efficiency (AE) in both crops (Canola and Wheat) (Table 3). As shown in Table 4, the F6 fertilizer treatment in 2012 had the highest DMY (6885 kg.ha-1) and SY (3571 kg.ha-1) for canola, also F6 for wheat produced the highest DMY (7365 kg.ha-1) and SY (4001 kg.ha-1) in 2013. The maximum TNU was found in the F6 treatment, whereas the minimum TNU was obtained in F9 for canola and wheat (Table 4). The maximum SOC (1.22 and 1.26) was observed in the second year by the F6 fertilizer treatments while the lowest soil organic carbon (0.1294 and 0.1201) were observed in F9 in canola and wheat, respectively (Table 4). In the F6 fertilizer treatment, 16.6 and 21.0kg for canola, and 19.9 and 26.3kg for wheat of seed yield were obtained per 1kg of applied N during 2010-2012 and 2011-2013, respectively.
Conclusions
The results of this study showed that the application of organic matter resulted in increased yield of rapeseed and wheat during the four-year period of the experiment. The highest grain yield was obtained from integrative treatments with combining zeolite. Application of zeolite in all fertilizer treatments resulted in increased both crops yield, nitrogen efficiency, absorbed nitrogen content, organic carbon content and soil nitrogen. Organic matter alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers resulted in an increase in the organic carbon content and nitrogen content of the soil and eventually increased yield in both crops. There is a positive and significant relationship between soil properties and grain yield indicating that organic fertilizers improve the growth of the plant and ultimately the grain yield, by improving these indices. The results showed that using manure and zeolite is a suitable method for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers and improving stability in agricultural systems. Our results demonstrated that organic amendments and zeolite in combination of chemical fertilizer could be useful methods to achieve sustainable agricultural systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azocompost
  • Combined fertilization
  • Sandy soil
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Zeolite
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