اثرتنش باد تحت تأثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی بر برخی صفات کمی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

چای ترش با نام علمی (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) از خانواده پنیرکیان، گیاهی یکساله، دارویی و شاخه­دار می­باشد. به منظور بررسی اثر تنش باد بر ویژگی­های کمی چای ترش تحت تأثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل در سال94- 1393 اجرا شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل تنش باد در سه سطح تنش شدید، تنش ملایم و بدون تنش به عنوان عامل اصلی، عامل فرعی شامل کود شیمیایی با سه سطح فسفر، نیتروژن و NPK و عامل فرعی فرعی شامل کود زیستی با شش سطح نیتروکسین، سوپرنیتروپلاس، سوپربیوفسفات، فسفات بارور2، اسیدهیومیک، بیوسولفور بودند. در این تحقیق صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی در بوته، وزن­تر و وزن خشک اندام­های هوایی دربوته، تعداد غوزه در بوته، وزن­تر غوزه دربوته، عملکرد ترکاسبرگ و عملکرد خشک کاسبرگ، وزن هزار دانه، مورد اندازه­گیری قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر تیمارهای تنش باد، کود شیمیایی و زیستی بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی معنی­دار شد. بیشترین میزان ارتفاع بوته، وزن­تر و خشک اندام­های هوایی، تعداد غوزه در بوته، وزن­تر غوزه در بوته در تیمار بدون تنش باد و عملکرد تر کاسبرگ و عملکرد خشک کاسبرگ در تنش ملایم باد بدست آمد. بیشترین میزان ارتفاع بوته، وزن­تر خشک اندام­های هوایی، تعداد غوزه در بوته، وزن­تر غوزه در بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد تر کاسبرگ و عملکرد خشک کاسبرگ در تیمار کود شیمیایی نیتروژن حاصل شد. بیشترین تعداد شاخه­های فرعی در تیمار کود شیمیایی NPK به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان ارتفاع، تعداد شاخه­های فرعی در بوته و وزن­تر اندام هوایی به‌ترتیب در تیمار کود زیستی فسفات بارور 2 و بیوسولفور حاصل شد. بیشترین مقدار وزن­تر غوزه در بوته، عملکرد تر کاسبرگ و عملکرد خشک کاسبرگ و وزن هزار دانه در تیمار کود زیستی اسیدهیومیک حاصل شد. با توجه به ضرورت کشت گیاهان دارویی در نظام­های زراعی به نظر می­رسد که تلفیق کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی باعث افزایش عملکرد وکاهش اثرات تنش باد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Wind Stress on the Quantitative Features of Hibiscus under Different Levels of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • malihe mohammadzade
  • baratali fakheri
  • nafise mahainejad
  • roghye mohammadpour
zabool
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Hibiscus, an annual and twigged plant, One hundred and twenty-day winds, is a regional phenomenon which blows with variable speeds, in four warm months of the year (June, July, August, September), in a part of the south-west of Iran. The most important factor that affects the sustainability of the food production and maintaining the soil fertility, is the use of the integrated feeding systems and also the use of the biological fertilizers in the nutritional system.
Materials and Methods
According to the emphasis of sustainable agriculture, increasing the quality and the sustainability of performance, medicinal plants, are considered as a good option for such systems. This research was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effects of wind stress on the Hibiscus quantitative features under the treatments of biological and chemical fertilizers. In growing season of 2014-2015, to evaluate the effects of wind stress on the characteristics of growth, performance and the performance components of Hibiscus leaflet under the treatments of chemical and biological fertilizers, a triplicate experiment, in the form of split plots in a randomized complete block design, was done in the Zabol University research farm. The main factors of wind stress were in three levels of severe wind stress, gentle wind stress and without wind stress and the minor factors including chemical fertilizers were in three levels of phosphorus, nitrogen and NPK. And, the minor factors including biological fertilizers, were in six levels of nitroxin, supernitro plus, super bio phosphate, bio phosphate, humic acid and bio sulfur. At the end of the investigation process of ten bushes which were chosen randomly from each plot after excluding the marginal effects, the following issues were measured:
 The features of the number of branches in each bush, wet and dry weight of aerial organs (grams per bush), the bush height (cm), the number of bolls per bush, the boll wet weight, the wet and dry weight of leaflet (grams per bush), chlorophyll fluorescence and the weight of one thousand seeds (grams per bush). Means comparison was done with the probability level of %5 by Duncan’s multiple range test. The statistical analysis of the research results was done by using the SAS (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary, NC) software
Results and Discussion
In this study, it was observed that the severe wind stress cause the reduction of Hibiscus quantitative traits. Of course (However), the integrated effects of chemical and biological fertilizers under the effects of wind stress have improved these characteristics. The following issues were obtained in order:  Improving the plant height feature in a treatment without stress, nitrogen chemical fertilizers, biological fertilizers, bio-sulfur, the number of side branches in a without-stress treatment, chemical fertilizers under the treatment of bio-sulfur and humic acid biological fertilizers and so on. The number of bolls in each bush, the bolls wet weight, the leaflet wet and dry weight and the leaflet performance in the chemical fertilizers treatments, NPK plus biological fertilizers in compare with the NPK chemical fertilizers treatment and not using the biological fertilizers, all originated from the positive effects of biological fertilizers on these traits. The biological fertilizers provides inaccessible mineral elements and also the organic compounds for the plant and cause the increase of the plant growth Akhtar and Siddiqui (2009).
Conclusions
The results of this research showed that the effects of wind stress treatments and chemical and biological fertilizers and the interactions between the chemical and biological fertilizers and the investigated traits, were meaningful.
This research showed that, the severe wind stress, cause the reduction of the quantitative traits of Hibiscus. However, the effects of combining the chemical and biological fertilizers under the wind stress, cause the increase of these traits and this matter has a positive effect on the production sustainability and environmental protection and according to the medicinal plants necessity in farming systems, it seems that the biological fertilizers are a good alternative for the chemical fertilizers

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : wind stress
  • Tea Maki
  • Biological fertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Medicinal plants
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