Effects of Organic, Chemical Fertilizers and Mycorrhizae Inoculation on Yield and Yield Components of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) in Different Cuttings

Document Type : Scientific - Research

Authors

Abstract

Introduction
 Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is an annual medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family and is native to the Southwest and Central Asia. This plant is not susceptible to cold and germination occurs at low temperatures. The vegetative period of this plant is short and from seed emergence till the fruit harvesting reaches 100 to 120 days. Based on long-term studies, excessive use of chemical fertilizers has a negative effect on plant yield resulting soil acidification, negative effect on soil biological activity and physical and chemical properties. In addition, application of chemical fertilizers mean while environmental impacts increases production costs in the long term. According to literatures, the use of organic or biological fertilizers to reduce the mentioned problems can be especially valued.
Materials and Methods
 In order to investigate the effects of organic, chemical fertilizers and mycorrhizae inoculation on yield and yield components of dill in different cuts, an experiment was carried out in the Research Station, College of Agriculture, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2013. The experiment was carried out in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers in four levels (cow manure, vermicompost, chemical fertilizer and control) and three levels of Mycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and no inoculation). The collected data were analyzed as split- plot design in time based on randomized complete block design (due to having three cuts during growing season). The 12 fertilizer treatments and three cuts were considered as main and sub plots, respectively.
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that the highest (4259 kg.ha-1) and the lowest fresh yield (2043 kg.ha-1) were obtained in second cut and third cut, respectively. The results indicated that Leaf Area Index, fresh and dry matter yield, percentage and essential oil yield were significantly different between inoculated mycorrhizae treatments and control treatment. However, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between Glomus mosseae and and Glomus intraradices in terms of former mentioned criteria. Fresh and dry matter yield and essential oil yield of dill were significantly higher in organic fertilizers treatments (vermicompost and cow manure) compared with chemical fertilizer. The results showed that using organic fertilizers have a better performance than chemical fertilizers in growing dill both in quality and quantity. The effects of fertilizer and mycorrhiza on leaf/stem ratio, grain yield, dry matter yield and essential oil yield were significant. The results of the experiment showed that in each level of mycorrhizal application, the use of vermicompost increased the leaf/stem ratio, so that, underGlomusintraradices inoculum conditions, the use of this organic fertilizer resulted in an increase of 16% leaf/stem ratio compared to the control. Also, in the absence of mycorrhizal inoculation, vermicompost and animal manure application resulted in a significant increase in leaf/stem ratio. The results of the experiment showed that the fresh and dry yield of the vegetative parts of the drill were significantly higher than other treatments in inoculation of mycorrhizal and animal manure treatments, so that the application of the mentioned treatment, fresh and dry yield of the vegetative parts increased by two times compared with control treatment. In addition, the results of the experiment showed that the essential oil yield increased as a result of the combined application of animal manure and mycorrhizal treatments, so that the application of vermicompost fertilizer and G. mosseae compared to control treatment increased the essential oil yield by more than four times.
Conclusion
 According to the results of the experiment, mycorrhizal application has an important role in improving the growth characteristics and dry matter yield, especially in cut II and III. In addition to mycorrhizal inoculation, application of livestock manure and vermicompost can play an important role in increasing the yield of drill at different cutting. Combined use of mycorrhiza inoculum and organic fertilizers can reduce the problems caused by the use of chemical fertilizers.

Keywords


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