Effect of Vermicompost, Sulfur and Thiobacillus on Some Soil Physico-chemical Properties, Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Jovain District

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


The excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution that is led to imbalance of essential elements in agricultural production system. Organic matter application as compost in the soil can improve chemical quality and biochemical properties that increase essential elements for plant nutrition. Application of organic manure can significantly increase the soil aggregate as well. Reported that application of 7 ton ha-1 of vermicompost increased number of leaves, stem dry weight, and corn plant height as compared to control and water holding capacity increases. Sulphur in plant is near to phosphorus (0.2%). Sulphur deficiency cause severe reduction in plant growth and due to participation in protein building and its deficiency cause yellowish in younger leaves. Sulphur can be applied as elemental sulphur, with ammonium and super phosphate to the soil. Iran is situated in arid and semi arid region of the world and need to reduce the pH with sulphur application due to high pH above 8 in some parts. The aim of this research was to study the effect of above factors in yield and yield components of maize and reducing environmental pollution.
Materials and Methods
This research carried out at 2012 in Jovein Distract suberb of Sabzevar city. Before conducting the research soil sample were collected from 0-30 cm depth and physical and chemical properties of the soil were estimated. Treatments including sulphur, thiobacillus and vermicompost were applied to soil and well mixed with soil before sowing. Each plot consists of five rows with six m length by 80 cm from each other. Seeds were sown at the depth of five cm and 20 cm from each other. This research carried out as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design. In this research three factors including elemental sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were used with three replications. Elemental sulphur in three levels (control, 500 kg ha-1 and 1000 kg ha-1), Vermicompost at two levels (control and 5000 kg ha-1 and thiobacillus with two levels (control and application) were applied. All three treatments were mixed with each other and applied to soil one month before sowing that sulphur oxidation take place. At the time of sowing basal fertilizer were applied as diammonium phosphate as (P2O5) at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 and potassium sulphate at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 as (K2O) on the bases of local recommendations. Analyses of variance were done with MSTATC and SAS and means compared with least significant difference test at 5% level. Figures were done with Excel 2007.

Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance showed that interaction effect of sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were significant on soil EC at 5% level. The highest EC was observed in 1000 kg ha-1 sulphur, 5000 kg ha-1 vermicompost and thiobacillus treatments. Analysis of variance showed that interaction effect between sulphur and thiobacillus and interaction effect of sulphur and vermicompost were significant on soil pH at 1% level. Mean comparison of data showed that highest decrease of soil pH achieved in 1000 kg ha-1 sulphur. main effect of vermicompost and interaction effect of elemental sulphur with vermicompost and sulphur with thiobacillus had significant effect on soil organic carbon at 1% level. Interaction effect of sulphur and vermicompost were significant on soil nitrogen at 5% level. Mean comparison of data showed that this increase was due to using 5000 kg ha-1 and not using sulphur. Interaction effect of sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus had significant on available phosphorus. Main effect of three factors and their interactions on available zinc, iron and available sulphate were significant at 5% levels.
The results of this research showed that application of elemental sulphur were significant on soil moisture, field capacity and soil pH and caused increase in soil EC and availability of soil zinc, iron, phosphorus, and sulphate. Organic manure like vermicompost increased soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen.


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