Effect of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Azotobacter Application on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Qualitative Traits under Dry Condition of Khorramabad

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Agronomy Department, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj , Iran

2 Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Lorestan, Agricultural and Natural Resources Reseach and Education Center, AREEO, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

4 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important agricultural product which provides the biggest fraction of food to meet human needs. Human aims to increase agricultural productions via increasing of the yield per area and application different agronomic practices like fertilizers. As a result of these activities, some issues like environmental pollution and particularly pollution of water and soil resources with some pollutants which can enter in the human food chain and threaten their health became a global concern.. Sustainable agriculture is a system that is able to improve the environmental situation with optimum use of available resources and has a great role in supplying human food demands and promoting life quality of human societies. One of the most important principles of sustainable agriculture is the application of bio- fertilizers in agroecosystems to decrease the amount of chemical compounds. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the ecological practices represents the ancient history of the symbiotic relation of the Mycorrhiza fungus with plants in most of the ecosystems. Most of the plants (about 95 percent of vascular plant species) at least can have a symbiotic relation with one of the mycorrhizal species. Reviewing the influence of glumous spp. fungus on the growth of Wheat shows the role of fungus in increasing the contents of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and calcium in plant seeds and shoot. Also Azotobacter as a bacterial biofertilizer leads to more absorption and increasing the concentration of some necessary elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, mg, Fe, and the protein content of crops.
Material and Methods
The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 agronomical year with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. In this experiment the effects of two biological fertilizers (1. Mycorrhiza in two levels of M1= inoculation and M2= no inoculation, 2. Azotobacter in tow levels of A1= inoculation and A2= no inoculation)were studied on three different Cultivars of Rain-fed wheat (V1: Sardari, V2: Kouhdasht, V3: Karim). In order to determine the N content of the seeds, the Kjeldahl methodology was used, and by multiplication of the N content of each sample in 5.83, the protein content of each sample was measured. Also P and K content of seeds were measured with spectrophotometry and flame spread (with AOAC standards) respectively.
Results and Discussion
As a result, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza had a significant effect on P content of three studied varieties of wheat in this research. The highest seed P content was measured in Azotobacter inoculated treatments (36%) that showed a 9% superiority in compare to control. Also the treatment of seed with mycorrhiza caused a 36%increasement in P content which showes 12% superiority in compare to control.In three different varieties studied in this research, the highest seed P content was related to Karim variety. The effect of Variety on seed K content was significant and the highest amount was related to Sardari variety (63%). The effects of Azotobacter, Mycorrhiza and Variety on seed N content was significant, and the highest amount of seed N was related to a1v3 (Azotobacter inoculation on Karim variety) treatment that showed 38.65% superiority in compare to the control. Also, Azotobacter*mycorrhiza*variety and Azotobacter*variety interactions on seed protein content was significant and the highest amount of seed protein percentage was related to a1v3 treatment (Azotobacter*Kraim variety) that showed 40.44% superiority in compare to control.
Positive impacts of biofertilizers was observed in most of the studied traits of wheat in this study. The biggest amount of association of Azotobacter and and symbiosis of mycorrhiza with wheat was related to Karim variety. Also application of biofertilizers increased the accumulation of organic matter in soil, increasing root development and more availability of nutrients.

In order to study, effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis an azotobacter application on qualitative traits of different wheat cultivars under dry condition of khorramabad, factorial trial was concluded in a randomized complete block design with four replication in khorramabad region during 2013- 2014 cropping season. Trial factors was including mycorrhizalnushroom (Glomous. Sp) (inoculation and non- inoculation), azotobacter (inoculation and non- inoculation) and cultivar (Sardari, Kohdasht, Karim). The results were indicated that cultivar effect on phosphor, nitrogen, potassium and seed protein was significant. Azotobacter and mycroriza simple effects on nitrogen, phosphor, and seed protein was significant. Also, Azotobacter and cultivar interaction effect on nitrogen and seed protein was significant. The highest mycoriza correlation and growth response percent was related to Karim by 21.24% and 17.52%. Overall, this study results was showed that biologic fertilizers application has played beneficial and effective role on growth and qualitative characteristic improvement of different wheat cultivars under dry conditions of khorramabad.


Abo-Ghalia, H., and Khalafallah, A. 2008. Responses of wheat plants associated whith arbuscalar mycorrihizal fungi to short term water stress followed by recover at three growth stages. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 4: 57-58.
Aliabadi Farhani, H., Lebaschi, M.H., Shiranirad, A.H., Valadabadi, A.R., and Daneshian, J. 2008. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhial fungi. different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on water use efficiency. relative water content and proline accumulation rate of coriander (Coriandrum sativa L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2(6): 125-131.
Amerian, M.R., and Stewart, W.S., and Griffiths, H. 2001. Effect of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, assimilation and leaf water relations in maize (Zea mays). Aspects of Applied Biology 63: 71-76.
Amirabadi, M., Ardakani, M.R., Rejali, F., Borji, M., and Khaghani, S.H. 2009. Determination of Azotobacter and mycorrizal efficiency under different level of phosphorus on yield and yield component of forage maize (KSC 704) in Arak. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 40(2): 45-51. (In Persian with English Summary)
Amiri, A., Tohidi, A., Johari, M., and MohammadiNejad, G. 2010. Study of cropping date, cultivar and azotobacter on wheat yield on pardis region. Journal of Crops Improvement 12(1): 11-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ardakani, M.R., Mazaheri, D., Majd, F., and Nour-mohammadi, G.H. 2000. The study of Mycorrhiza and Streptomyces' efficiency and different levels of phosphorus on grain yield and some characters of wheat. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 2(2): 17- 28. (In Persian with English Summary)
Balemy, T., Pal, N., and Saxena, A.K. 2007. Response of onion (Allium cepal) to combined application of biological and chemical nitrogenous fertilizers. Acta Agricultural Slovenica 89: 107-114.
Cardoso, I.M., and Kuyper, T.W. 2006. Mycorrhizal and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116: 72-84.
Carletti, S. 2002. Use of plant growth–prompting rhizobacteria in plant microprogation (Online). Available at www.ag.adu. (modified 13Mar. 2002; accessed 8 July 2002; Vertified 22 May 2002) Auburn university Alabama Agricalttural Experiment Station, Alabama. USA.
Daei, G. 2006. Study of different strains symbiotic efficiency of mushroom with wheat genotypes under salinity using nuclear assay method. Master Thesis. Azad University. Branch Karaj. (In Persian with English Summary)
Dawson, J.C., Huggins, D.R., and Jones, S.S. 2008. Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crops Research 107: 89-101.
Faheed, F.A., and Abad–El Fattah, Z. 2008. Effect of chlorella vulgaris as bio- fertizer on growth parameters and metabolic aspects of lettuce plant. Journal of Socal Sciences 4: 165-175.
Ghorchiyani, M., Akbari, G., Alikhani, H., Zarei, M., and Alahdadi, A. 2011. Arboscular mycririzae mushroom and sodomonas-flourceens bacteria on phosphor fertilizers utilization efficiency, mycrorizae association and corn yield under drought. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 63: 123-135.
Gupta, M.L, Prasad, A., Rama, M., and Kumar, S. 2002. Effect of the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Golomus fasicclatum on the essential oil yield related charaters and nutrient acquisition in the crop of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) under field conditions. Bioresourcue Technology 81: 77-79.
Habibi, H., Mazaheri, D., MajnonHoseyni, N., Chaechi, M.R., Tabatabaee, M., and Bigdeli, M. 2007. Assessment of biological and mineral resources effect on yield and secondary metabolite value in two agronomic and wild species of Thymus vulgaris. PhD Thesis. Agriculture Science College. Agriculture and Natural Resources Pardis. Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hajiboland, R.N., Asgharzadeh, A., and Mehrfar, Z. 2004. Study of Azotobacter ecological on two Azarbayejan pasture region and inoculation effect on growth and wheat mineral nutrition. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 8(2): 75-90.
ILbas, A.I., and Sahin, S. 2005. Glomus fasiculatum inoculation improves soybean production. Acta Agriculture Scandinavica Section B-soil and Plant Science 55(4): 287-292.
Jutur, P.P., and Reddy, A.R. 2007. Isolation, purification and properties of new restrication endonucleas from Bacillus and Bacillus lentus. Microbiological Research 162: 378-383.
Kader, M.A., Mian, M.H., and Hoyue, M.S. 2002. Effects of Azotbacter inculants on the yield and nitrogen uptake by wheat. Jounal of Biological Sciences 2(4): 250-261.
Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerjik, K.G. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality infoeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with p-fertiliser. Biresourc Technology 93: 307-3110.
Khan, M.S., and Zaidi, A. 2007. Synergistic effects of the inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the performance of wheat. Agriculture and Forestry 31(16): 355-362.
Markovacki, N., and Milic, V. 2001. Use of Azotobacter chroocucum as potential useful in agricultural application. Microbial Biotechnology 51: 145-158.
Mukeriji, K.G., and Chomola, B.P. 2003. Compendium of Mycorrhizal Research A.P.H. Publisher. New Dehli. India.
Nadiyan, H. 2011. Drought stress and mycrorizae symbiotic effect on phosphor suction and growth by two different sorghum cultivar on root morphological. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Water and Soil Science) 57: 127-140. (In Persian with English Summary)
Narula, N., Kumar, V., Behl, R.K., Deubel, A., Gransee, A., and Merbech, W. 2000. Effect of p-solubilizing Azotobacter chrococoumon, N.P.K uptake in p-responsie wheat genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Plant Nuttrittion and soil Science 163: 393-398.
Omidi, A., Mirzakhani, M., and Ardakani, M.R. 2014. Evaluation of the qualitative traits of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by Azotobacter and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Journal of Agroecology 6(2): 324-338. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ortas, I., Ortakci, D., Kaya, Z., Cinar, A., and Onelge, N. 2002. Mycorrhizal dependency of sour in relation to- phosphours and zinc nutrition. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25(6): 1263-1279.
Rahimi, L., AliAsgharzadeh, N., Avestan, S., and Farajzadeh, D. 2012. Effects of microbial siderophores produced by native Azotobacter chroococcum strains on micronutrients uptake by wheat plant. Water and Soil Science 22(2): 27-40. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rajaee, S., AliKhani, H.A., and Raiesi, F. 2007. Effect of Plant growth promoting potentials of Azotobacter chroococcum native strains on growth, yield and uptake of nutrients in wheat. Journal of Water and Soil Science (Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources) 11(41): 285-297. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ratti, N., Kumar, S., Verma, H.N., and Gautam, S.P. 2001. Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martinii var. motia by rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation. Microbiological Research 156: 145-149.
Reddy, P.S., Rao. T.V.S., Venkataramana, P., and Suryanrayana, N. 2003. Response of mulberry varieties toVesicularar buscul mycorrhizal and Azotobacter biforetirizers inoculation. Indian Journal of Soil and Water Sciences 20(2): 273-283.
Saubidet, M.I., Fatta, N., and Barreix, A.J. 2002. The effect of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilens on growth and nitrogen utilization by wheat plants. Plant and Soil 254: 215-222.
Smit, S.E. and Read, D.J. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis third edition, Academic press.
Smith, C.M., Halickova, H., Starkey, S., Gill, B.S. and Holubec, V. 2004. Identification of Aegilops germplasm with multiple aphid resistance. Euphytica 135: 265-273.
Sturs. A.V., and Chiristie, B.R. 2003. Beneficalmicrobial allelopathies in the root zone the management of soil quality and plant disease with rhizobacteria. Soil Tillage Research 72: 107-1230.
Subramanian, K.S., Charest, C., Dwyer, L.M., and Hamilton, R.I. 1997. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on leaf water potential, sugar content, and P content during drought and recovery of maize. Canadian Journal of Botany 75(9): 1582-1591.
Susana, B., Rosas, J.A., Andre, M.R., and Nestor, S.C. 2006. Phosphate- solubilizing Pseudomonas putida can influence the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 3502-3505.
Vessey, J.K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertimizers. Plant and Soil 255(2): 571-586.