Effect of Bio-fertilizers in Combination with Different Rates of Chemical Fertilizers on the Growth Characters and Sepals Yield of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran

2 Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran


Roselle or Maki tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a subtropical medicinal and aromatic plant belongs to the family Malvaceae that sepals of it's due to its medicinal properties and culinary uses. To evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different rates of chemical fertilizers on the growth characters, sepals yield and yield components of roselle, an experiment was conducted in randomized coplete block design with three replications, at the Research Station in Zabol University, during 2012 and 2013. Experimental treatments were plant nutrition with NPK, biophosphate, biophosphate+25% NPK, biophosphate+50% NPK, biophosphate+ 100% NPK, nitroxin, nitroxin+25%NPK, nitroxin+50%NPK, nitroxin+100%NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate, nitroxin+ biophosphate+25% NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate+50% NPK, nitroxin+biophosphate+100% NPK and control (non-use of any fertilizer). Plant traits such as plant height, no. of branches.plant-1, fresh and dry weight of vegetative, roots fresh and dry weight, calyx no.plant-1, sepal dry weight, sepals yield of roselle were measured. The results of combined analysis of variance showed that the effect of fertilizer were significant (P≤0.01) for all studied traits. Calyx no.plant-1 was the most important component in determining the sepals yield. The highest of all studied triates belong to nitroxin+biophosphate+100% NPK treatment that its difference with nitroxin+ biophosphate+50% NPK treatment was not significant. Thus, with respect to the production of medicinal plants in cropping systems and attention to the cultivation of these plants in low input systems, to improve plant growth and increase the sepals yield of roselle, 50% of the recommended dose of fertilizers with bio-fertilizers is recommended.


Abd El-Latif, E.S. 2006. Effect of chemical, organic and spraying with active dry yeast on growth, oil production and plant constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.
Adesemoye, A.O., Torbert, H.A., and Kloepper, J.W. 2008. Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 54: 876-886.
Abdul-Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R., and Panneerselvam, R. 2007. Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomas yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 60: 7–11.
Ahmed, A.K. 1980. Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed as new oilseed and a source of edible oil. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, England.
Ajimoddin, I., Vasundhara, M., Radhakrishna, D., Biradar, S.L., and Rao, G.G.E. 2005. Integrated nutrient management studies in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Indian Perfumer 49(1): 95-102.
Akhtar, M.S., and Siddiqui, Z.A. 2009. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp. on the growth, nodulation, yield and root- rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(15): 3489-3496.
Akindahunsi, A.A., and Olaleye, M.T. 2003. Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Journal Ethnopharmacology 89: 161-164.
Al-Harbi, A.R., and Wahb-Allah, M.A. 2006. Effect of biofertilization under different nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of summer squash. Journal of the Saudi Society for Agricultural Sciences 5(1): 42-54.
Anokwuru, C.P., Esiaba, I., Ajibaye O., and Adesuyi, A.O. 2011. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx. Journal of Medicinal Plants 5: 557-566.
Asghar, H.N., Zahir, Z.A., Arshad, M., and Khaliq, A. 2002. Relationship between in vitro production of auxins by rhizobacteria and their growth promoting activities in Brassica juncea L. Journal of Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 231-237.
Babalola, S.O., Babalola A.O., and Aworh, O.C. 2000. Compositional attributes of the calyces of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). African Journal of Food Technology 6: 133-134.
Banchio, E., Bogino, P.C., Zygadlo, J., and Giordano, W. 2008. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve growth and essential oil yield in Origanum majorana L. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 36: 766-771.
Biswas, B., Singh, R., and Mukhopadhyay, A.S.N. 2008. Use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as biofertilizer for non-legumes: prospects and challenges. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 80: 199-209.
Brussard, L., and Ferrera- Cenato, R. 1997. Soil Ecology in Sustainable Arrigultural Systems. New York: Lewis publishers, USA.
Casson, S.A., and Lindsey, K. 2003. Genes and signalling in root development. New Phytologist 158: 11-38.
Chandrasekar, B.R., Ambrose, G., and Jayabalan, N. 2005. Influence of biofertilizers and nitrogen source level on the growth and yield of Echinochola frumentacea (Roxb.) Link. Journal of Agricultural Technology 1(2): 223–234.
Chen, J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. October, 16–20. Thailand. p. 11.
Copley, L.S. 1975. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Longman Group, U.K.
Darzi, M.T., Ghalavand, A., Sephidkan, F., and Rejali, F. 2008. Effect of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and biological phosphate fertilizer on the quality and quantity of essential oil of fennel. Iranian Journal of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research 24: 396-413. (In Persian with English Summary)
Duke, J.A. 2006. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Journal of Crude Research 17(3): 91-110.
Duke, J. A. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished.
El-Gizawy, N.K.B., and Mehasen, S.A.S. 2009. Response of faba bean to bio, mineral phosphorus fertilizers and foliar application with zinc. World Applied Sciences Journal 6(10): 1359-1365.
Erkossa, T., Stahr, K., and Tabor, G. 2002. Integration of organic and inorganic fertilizers: effect on vegetable productivity. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia 82: 247-256.
Fasoyiro, S.B., Ashaye, O.A., Adeola, A., and Samuel, F.O. 2005. Chemical and storability of fruits-flavored (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drinks. World Journal of Agricultural Science 1: 165-168.
Gharib, F.A., Moussa, L.A., and Massoud, O.N. 2008. Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Marjorana hortensis L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 10: 381-387.
Glick, B.R. 1995. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41: 109-117.
Gray, E.J., and Smith, D.L. 2005. Interacellular and extracellular PGPR: Commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry Journal 37: 395-412.
Griffe, P., Metha, S., and Shankar, D. 2003. Organic production of medicinal, aromatic and dye yielding plants (MADPs): forward, preface and introduction. Food and Agriculture Organization 2: 52-63.
Gutierrez-Manero, F.J., Ramos-Solano, B., Probanza, A., Mehouachi, J., Tadeo, F.R., and Talon, M. 2001. The plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce highamounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiologia Plantarum 111: 206–211.
Habibi, A., Heidari, G.R., Sohrabi, Y., and Mohamadi, K. 2013. Effect of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Convar. pepo Var. styriaca). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 28(4): 604-615. (In Persian with English Summary)
Halimatul, S.M.N., Amin, I., Mohd-Esa, N., Nawalyah, A.G., and Siti Muskinah, M. 2007. Protein quality of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds. ASEAN Food Journal 14: 131-140.
Han, H.S., and Lee, K.D. 2006. Effect of inoculation with phosphate and potassium co-in solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant, Soil and Environment 52: 130-136.
Harridy, I.M., and Amara, M. 1998. Effect of presowing inoculation of seeds by nitrogen fixed bacteria on growth, fruit production, sepals yield and the chemical composition of roselle plants. Egyption Journal of Applied Science 13: 217-231.
Hassan, F.A.S. 2009. Response of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. plant to some biofertilization treatments. Annals of Agricultural Science 54: 437-446.
Heikal, A.M. 2005. Effect of organic and bio-fertilization on the growth, production and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, L.) plants. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty Agriculture Cairo University, Egypt.
Kader, M.A. 2002. Effects of Azotobacter inoculant on the yield and nitrogen uptake by wheat. Journal of Biological Sciences 2: 259-261.
Kandeel, A.M., Naglaa, S.A.T., and Sadek, A.A. 2002. Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, volatile oil yield and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum L. plant. Annals of Agricultural Science 47: 351–371.
Kapoor, R., Chaudhary, V., and Bhatnagar, A.K. 2007. Effects of arbuscular mycorhiza and phosphorus application on artemisinin concenteration in Artemisia annua L. Mycorrhiza 17: 581-587.
Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K.G. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. On mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology 93: 307-311.
Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K.G. 2002. Mycorrhization of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) to enhance the concentration and quality of essential oil. Jornal of Science, Food and Agriculture 82(4): 339-342.
Karami, A., Sepehri, A., Hamzei, J., and Salimi, G. 2011. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorous biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitative traits of borage (Borago officinalis L.) under water deficit stress. Plant Productions Technology (Agricultural Research) 11(1): 37-50.
Karla, A. 2003. Organic cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. A hope for sustainability and quality enhancement. Journal of Organic Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Dye Yielding Plants (MADPs). FAO.
Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri-Mahallati, M., and Ghorbani, R. 2008. Application of biological fertilizers on growth indices of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6(2): 294-285. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khoshbakht, T., Bahadori, F., Khalighi, A., and Moez Ardalan, M. 2011. The effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria on macro element content and yield of Aloe vera in green house conditions. Crop Physiology Journal 2(8): 45-59.
Kianisadr, M., and Borna, A. 2008. Environmental effects of chemical fertilizers. 2nd Iranian National Congress of Ecological Agriculture, Gorgan p. 4216-4199. (In Persian)
Kizilkaya, R. 2008. Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum. Journal of Ecological Engineering 33(2): 150-156.
Kumar, B., Trivedi, P., and Pandey, A. 2007. Pseudomonas corrugates: A suitable bacterial inoculants for maize grown under rain fed conditions of Himalayan region. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 3093-3100.
Kumar, T.S., Swaminathan, V., and Kumar, S. 2009. Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil constituents in ratoon crop of davana (Artemisia pallens Wall.). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8(2): 86-95.
Kumar, V., Behl, R.K., and Narula, N. 2001. Establishment of phosphate solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in rhizosphere and their effect on wheat under green house conditions. Microbiology Research 156: 87-93.
Lucy, M., and Glick, B.R. 2004. Application of free living plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Journal of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86: 1-25.
Mahadevan, N., Shivali, and Kamboj, P. 2009. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.: An overview. Natural Product Radiance 8(1): 77-83.
Mahfouz, S.A. and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics 21(4): 361-366.
Makkizadeh, M., Chaichi, M., Nasrollahzadeh, S., and Khavazi, K. 2012. Effect of different types of nitrogen fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Satureja hortensis L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 28(2): 330-341. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mikovacki, N., Marinkovic, J., Cacic, N., and Bgelic, D. 2010. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of Sugarbeet in dependence of fertilization and inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum. Research Journal of Agricultural Science 42 (3): 260-264.
Mikovacki, N., and Milic, V. 2001. Use of Azotobacter chroococcum as potentially useful in agricultural application. Annals of Microbiology 51: 145-158.
Mirzaei, A., Vazan, S., and Naseri, R. 2010. Response of yield and yield camponents of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and different nitrogen levels under dry land condition. World Applied Science Journal 11(10): 1287-1291.
Mohamed, A.A., and Ahmed, M.E. 2003. A comparative study on the effect of sugarcane filter mud, sheep and chicken manures used for fertilization of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Minia. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 22: 221-234.
Mukhtar, A.M. 2007. The effect of feeding roselle. African Academic Journal 5(3): 254-259.
Olivera, M., Iribane C., and Liuck, C. 2002. Effect of phosphorus on nodulacion and N2 Pixation by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) proceedings of the 15th International Meeting on Microbia Phosphate Solubilization. 16-19 July, Salamanca, Spain.
Pal, K.K., Tilak, V.B.R., Saxena, A.K., Dey, R., and Singh, C.S. 2001. Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomia phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminaerum caused by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiological Research 156: 209–223.
Qi, Y., Chin, K.L., Malekian, F., Berhane, M., and Gager, J. 2005. Biological characteristics, nutritional and medicinal value of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa. CIRCULAR-Urban Forestry Natural Resources and Environment No. 604.
Rademacher, W. 1994. Gibberellin formation in microorganisms. Plant Growth Regulation 15: 303–314.
Rejesus, R.M., and Hornbaker, R.H. 1999. Economic and environmental evaluation of alternative pollution-reducing nitrogen management practices in central III inois. Agricultural Ecosystem and Environment 75: 41-53.
Russel, R. 1977. Plant Root Systems (The Function and Interaction with the Soil). Marcel Dekter. USA.
Sanchez, G.E., Carballo, G.C., and Romos, G.S.R. 2008. Influence of organic manures and biofertilizers on the Quality of two Plantaginaceae: Plantago major L. and P. lanceolota L. Revista cubana de plants. Medicinales 13: 12-15.
Sarmadnia, G., and Koocheki, A. 1991. Physiology of Crop Plants. Jihad Daneshgahi of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
SAS Institute. 2013. The SAS system for Windows. Release 9.2. SAS Institute. Cary, NC.
Schippers, B., Bakker, A.W., Bakker, P.A., and Vanpeer, R. 1990. Benefical deleterious effects of HCN production Pseudomonas on rhizosphere interaction. Plant and Soil 129: 75-83.
Shaalan, M.N. 2005. Influence of biofertilizers and chicken manure on growth, yield and seeds quality of Nigella sativa L. plants. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83: 811-828.
Shaheen, A.M., Fatma, A., Omiama, R., Sawan, M., and Ghoname, A.A. 2007. The integrated use of bio-inoculants and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and nutritive value of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(3): 307-312.
Shalan, M.N., Abd El-Latif, T.A., Soliman, S.G., and El-Ghawas, E.O. 2001. Effect of some chemical and biofertilizer treatments on roselle plants (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 79: 587-606.
Singh, S., and Kapoor, K.K. 1999. Inoculation with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves dry matter yield and nutrient uptake by wheat grown in a sandy soil. Biology and Fertility Soils 28: 139-144.
Stajkovic, O., Delic, D., Josic, D., Kuzmanovic, D., Rasulic, N., and Knezevic-Vukcevic, J. 2011. Improvement of common bean growth-promoting bacteria. Romanian Biotecnological Letters 16(1): 5919-5926.
Sturz, A., and Christie, B. 2003. Beneficial microbial allelopathies in the root zone: the management of soil quality and plant disease with rhizobacteria. Soil and Tillage Research 69: 353-364.
Swaefy Hend, M.F., Sake Weaam, R.A., Sabh, A.Z., and Ragab, A.A. 2007. Effect of some chemical and bio-fertilizers on peppermint plants grown in sandy soil. Annals of Agricultural Science 52(2): 451-463.
Tialk, K.V.B.R., Singh, C.S., Roy, V.K., and Roa, N.S.S. 1982. Azosprillum brasilense and Azotobacter chroococcum inoculums: Effect of yield maize and sorghum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14: 417-418.
Tsai, P., McIntosh, J., Pearce, P., Camden, B., and Jordan, B. 2002. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Extract. Food Research International 35: 351-356.
Turan, M., Ataoglu, N., and Sahin, F. 2007. Effect of Bacilluc FS-3 on growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants and availability of phosphorus in soils. Plant, Soil and Environment 53(2): 58-64.
Van Loon, L.C. 2007. Plant response to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. European Journal of Plant Pathology 119: 243-254.
Vessy, K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizars. Plant and Soil 255: 571-586.
Vinutha, T. 2005. Biochemical Studies on Ocimum sp. Inoculated with Microbial Inoculants. MSc (Agri.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.
Wester, P.J. 1920. The cultivation and uses of roselle. Philippine Agricultural Review 13: 89–99.
Wong, P.K., Yusof, S., Ghazali, H.M., and Man, Y.C. 2002. Physico-chemical characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Nutrition Food Science 32: 68-73.
Wu, S.C., Caob, Z.H., Lib, Z.G., Cheunga, K.C., and Wong, M.H. 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125: 155-166.
Yadegari, M., Asadirahmani, H., Noormohammadi, G., and Ayneband, A. 2010. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase growth, yield and nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus vulgaris. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33:1733-1743.
Yasari, E., Esmaeili Azadgoleh, A.M., Pirdashti, H., and Mozafari, S. 2008. Azotobacter and Azospirillum inoculant as biofertilizer in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 7(5): 490-494.
Youssef, A. A., Edris, A.E., and Gomaa, A.M. 2004. A comparative study between some plant growth regulators and certain growth hormones producing microorganisms on growth and essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. Plant Annals of Agricultural Science 49: 299-311.
Yuonis, S.I., Ghaly, N.G., and Ahmed, S.K. 2004. Effect of FYM and planting space on the vegetative growth, active ingredient and chemical composition of Ammi visnaga L. Journal of Agricultural Science 29: 1985-1993.
Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M., and Frankenberger, W.F. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Advanced Agronomy 81: 97-168.