The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Water Stress Condition

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan Mollasani, Ahwaz, Iran

2 Lorestan, Agricultural and Natural Resources Reseach and Education Center, AREEO, Khorramabad, Iran


Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003). Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004). Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms) in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004).
Materials and methods
In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan), nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza) were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers). To analyze the growth of grains under different treatments totally 7 samples were performed from flowering to harvest through checking the process of grain weight changes and final grain weight were determined during physiological maturation (when dry grain weight is fixed or changes are not significant). Filling rate and the effective grain filling period were measured using relevant formula. The grain yield measured at the time of maturing after harvesting 3 m² per two middle lines in the plot and through eliminating the fringes of the midfield. All statistical analyzes including variance analysis, comparison of means and interactional slicing using SAS software was done. Mean comparisons using LSD test at the probability of error of 5% was done.
Results and discussion
The results of this study concluded that by increasing stress intensity, traits of this research with negative effect on economic performance led to irreparable damage to crop plants. So the lowest grain yield with the rate of 3216.7 kg.ha-1 obtained from 180 mm evaporation. So it is expected to take steps to increase performance by avoiding or minimizing the impact of stress. So that the combined use of these fertilizers had a positive effect on reducing plant leaves heat in low and high water stress condition. Most grain yield obtained by combined treatment of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza that respectively was 23 and 29 percent more than control treatment. In response to levels of fertilizer, the highest amount of LAI, RWC, Final grain weight and effective grain filling period obtained in vermicompost combined with mycorrhiza treatments.
It seems that the use of vermicompost and mycorrhizal fertilizer combination in areas that are subjected to water stress from improvement of plant physiologic condition can be cause improvement of plant growth conditioning and obtaining higher yielding. Accordingly, for saving irrigation water and cost inputs, farming management and achieving the favorite yield under water deficit conditions, it is recommended to use 5 t.h-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza for growing L17 soybean.


Abdoli, M.A., and Roshani, M.R. 2008. Vermicompost (Design, Build and Run). Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Aliasgharzad, N., Neyshabouri, M.R., and Salimi, G. 2006. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on drought stress of soybean. Biologia, Bratislava 61: 324-328.
Al-Karaki, G., Mc Michael, B., and Zak, G. 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza 14: 263-269.
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Bierman, P., Welch, C., and Metzger, J.D. 2004. Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technology 93: 145-153.
Auge, R.M., Stodola, A.J.W., Tims, J.E., and Saxton, A.M. 2001. Moisture retention properties of a mycorrhizal soil. Plant and Soil 230: 87-97.
Carcova, J., Maddonni, G.A., and Ghersa, C.M. 1998. Crop water stress index of three maize hybrids grown in soils with different quality. Field Crops Research 55: 165-174.
Costa-Franca, M.G., Pham-Thi, A.T., Pimentel, C., Pereyra-Rossiello, R.O., Zuily-Fodil, Y., and Laffray, D. 2000. Differences in growth and water relations among Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars in response to induced drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 43: 227-237.
Diepenbrock, W. 2000. Yield analysis of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.): A review. Field Crops Research 67: 35-49.
Eck, H.V. 1986. Irrigated corn yield response to nitrogen and water. Journal of Agronomy 76: 421-428.
Ehdaie, B., and Waines, J.G. 1996. Gentic variation of preanthesis assimilates of grain yield in spring wheat. Journal of Genetic and Breeding 50: 47-56.
Emam, Y., and Eilkaee, M.N. 2002. Effects of plant density and chlormequat chloride (CCC) on morphological characteristics and grain yield of winter oilseed rape cv. Talayeh. Iranian Journal of Crop Science 1: 1-8. (In Persian with English Summary)
Flexas, J., and Medrano, H. 2002. Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in C3-plants: Stomatal and nonstomatal limitation revisited. Annals of Botany 183: 183-189.
Gholinejad, A., Aynehband, A., Hassanzadeh Ghorthapeh, A., Noormohamadi, G, and Barnoosi, I. 2012. Effects of drought stress, nitrogen amounts and plant densities on grain yield, rapidity and period of grain filing in sunflower. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 22(1): 129-143. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hasanuzzaman, M., Ahamed, K.U., Rahmatullah, N.M., Akhter, N., Nahar, K., and Rahman, M.L. 2010. Plant growth characters and productivity of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as affected by application of different manures. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 22(1): 46-58. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hekmatshoar, H. 1993. Plants Physiology under Difficult Condition. (Translation). Niknam Press, Iran p. 251. (In Persian)
Hunt, L.A., Vander, P., and Parajasingham, S. 1991. Postanthesis temperature effects on duration and rate of grain filling in some winter and spring wheats. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71: 609-617.
Jabari, M., Ebadi, A., and Mostafaei, H. 2010. The effect of supplementary irrigation on phenological stages, chlorophll, percent absorption of radiation, radiation use efficiency and grain yield in the cultivars of spring safflower. The 11th Congress of Iranian Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences. Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Collge of Environmental Sciencss, 24-26 July 2010, p. 307. (In Persian with English Summary)
Jamshidi, E., Ghalavnd, A., Salahi, A., Zare, M.G., and Jamshidi, A.R. 2009. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal on yield, yield components and plant characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 11(1): 136-150. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kafi, M., and Rostami, M. 2007. Yield characteristics and oil content of three safflower (Carthmus tinctorius L.) cultivars under drought in reproductive stage and irrigation with salin water. Agricultural Research 5(1): 121-131. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kafi, M., Kamkar, B., and Mahdavi Damghani, A.A. 2001. Seed Biology and the Yield of Grain Crops. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, Mashhad, Iran 232 pp. (In Persian)
Lawlor, D.W., and Cornic, G. 2002. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell and Environment 25: 275-294.
Naderi, A., Hashemi-Dezfouli, S.A., Majidi Hervan, E., Rezaei, A., and Nourmohammadi, G. 2000. Study on correlation of traits and components affecting grain weight and determination of effects of some physiological parameters on grain yield in spring wheat genotypes under optimum and drought stress conditions. Journal of Seed and Plant Improvement 16(3): 374-386. (In Persian with English Summary)
Paknejad, F., Majidi, E., Normohamadi, G., Seadat, A., and Vazan, S. 2007. Evaluation of drought stress on effective traits at accumulative assimilate of grain in different cultivars of wheat. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13(1): 137-149. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., and Jamali Ramin, F. 2010. Comparative effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels. Journal of Agroecology 3(2): 492-501. (In Persian with English Summary)
Quarrie, S.A., and Jones, H.G. 1979. Genotypic variation in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and abssisic acid concentration in spring wheat subjected to artifIcial drought stress. Annals of Botany 44: 323-332.
Rashidi, S. 2005. Study of the effects of drought stress at various growth stages at of various level of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of corn single cross hybrid TC647 under weather conditions in Khuzestan. MSc thesis, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Khuzestan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rashtbari, A., and Alikhani, H.A. 2012. Effect and efficiency of municipal solid waste compost and vermicompost on morpho-physiological properties and yield of canola under drought stress conditions. Scientific Information Database 2(22): 113-127. (In Persian with English Summary)
Reynolds, M.P., Delgado, B.M.I., Gutie´rrezrodri´guex, M., and Larque-Saavedra, A. 2000. Photosynthesis of wheat in a warm, irrigated environment. I. Genetic diversity and crop productivity. Field Crops Research 66: 37-50.
Rezvani, M., Afshang, B., Gholizadeh, A., and Zaefarian, F. 2011. Evaluation of mycorrhizal fungus and phosphate rock effectiveness on growth and uptake of phosphorus in soybean (Glycine max Merr.). Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production 1(2): 97-118. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rodriguez, L. 2006. Drought and drought stress on south taxas Landscape plants. San. Antonio Express News. Avilable at (
Tarumingkeng, R.C., and Coto, Z. 2003. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of soybean. Kisman, Science Philosopy p. 702, Term paper, Graduate School, Borgor Agricultural University. (Institut Ppertanian Bogor)
Turkan, I., Bor, M., Ozdemir, F., and Koca, H. 2005. Differential responses of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the leaves of drought tolerant P. acutifolius gray and drought sensitive P. vulgaris L. subjected to polyethylene glycol mediated water stress. Plant Science 168: 223-231.
Wright, P.R., Morgan, J.M., Jessop, R.S., and Gass, A. 1995. Comparative adaptation of canola (Brassica napus) and Indian mustard (B. juncea) to soil water deficits: Yield and yield components. Field Crops Research 42: 1-13.
Yamasaki, S., and Dillenburg, L.C. 1999. Measurements of leaf relative water content in Araucaria angustifolia. Revista Brasileria de Fisiologia Vegetal 11(2): 69-75.
Yang, J., and Zhang, J. 2006. Grain filling of cereals under soil drying. New Phytologist 169(2): 223-236.