Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on seedlings establishment and morphological parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in rangeland of Bahar Kish Quchan

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Shahrood University of Technology


Plant establishment is the most critical stage in biological renovation of rangelands. The processes which normally fails, due to the harsh conditions in the arid and semiarid environments. New technologies may be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of enhancing seedling establishment and growth rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under natural habitats by inoculation with mycorrhiza species. Seeds of alfalfa were sown under greenhouse for 20 days and inculcated with two species of Glomus intraradices and G. mosseae. After 30 days seedlings were transplanted the rangeland as sub plots as split plot based on RCBD (Randomized complete block design) were evaluated with three replication. Root colonization percent with G. mosseae was 62/7 % and with of G . intraradices was 72%. Mycorrhozal inoculation increased establishment of alfalfa at the early and late growth stages, with stronger effects of G. intraradices than G. mosseae. Furthermore leaf and root dry matter, total dry matter and the shoot/root, was increased as a result of G. intraradices, compared with G. mosseae inoculation. In conclusions, G. intraradices can be used as a biological fertilizer for establishment of alfalfa in semiarid rangeland of Bahar Kish, Quchan.


1. Ahmad Khan, I., Ahmad, S., Sarvat, N.M., Moazzam, N., Athar, M., and Shabir, S. 2007. Growth response of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) to hosphorus and mycorrhizal inoculation. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 72 (2): 129-132.
2. Allen, E.B., and Cunningham, G.L. 1991. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on Distichlis spicata under three salinity levels. New Phytologist 93: 227-236.
3. Atayese, M.O. 2007. Feild response of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars to mycorrhizal inoculation phosphorus fertilizer in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria American-Eurasian. Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2(1): 16-23.
4. Barea, J.M., Pozo, M.J., Azcon, R., and Azcon, C. 2005. Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. Journal of Experimental Botany 56(417): 1761-1778.
5. Bi, Q. 2006. Analysis on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to salt-tolerance and growth effects of Leymus chinensis. Master Dissertation. Northeast University of Changchun.
6. Daei, G., Ardekani, M.R., Rejali, F., Teimuri, S., and Miransari, M. 2009. Alleviation of salinity stress on wheat yield, yield components, and nutrient uptake using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 166: 617-625.
7. Douponnois, R., Colombet, A., and Thioulouse, V.H.J. 2005. The mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and rock phosphate amendment influence plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere of Acacia holoseria. European Journal of Soil Biology 37: 1460-1468.
8. Friese, C.F., and Allen, M.F. 1991. The spread of VA mycorrihizal fungal hyphae in the soil: inoculum types and external hyphal architecture. Mycologia 83: 409-418.
9. Garg, N., and Manchanda, G. 2009. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the alleviation of Ionic, osmotic and oxidative stresses induced by salinity in (Cajanus cajan L.) Mill sp. (pigeonpea). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 195: 110-123.
10. Giovannetti, M., and Mosse, B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist 84: 489-500.
11. Guan, B., Zhou, D., Zhang, H., Tian, Y., Japhet, W., and Wang, P. 2009. Germination responses of Medicago ruthenica seeds to salinity, alkalinity and temperature. Journal of Arid Environments 73: 135-138.
12. He, Z., He, C., Zhang, Z., Zou, Z., and Wang, H. 2007. Changes of antioxidative enzymes and cell membrane osmosis in tomato colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizae under NaCl stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 59: 128-133.
13. Jankju, M., Delavari, A., and Ganjali, A. 2009. Interseeding of range plants Bromus kopetdaghensis in shrub lands rangeland. Journal of Iranian Range Management Society 2(4): 314-328. (In Persian With English abstract)
14. Jennifer, A.W., Tallaksen, J., and Charvat, I. 2008. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation at a roadside prairie restoration site. Mycologia 100 (1): 6–11.
15. Jiang, S.C., He, N.P., Wu, L., and Zhou, D.W. 2009. Vegetation restoration of secondary bare saline-alkali patches in the Songnen plain, China. Applied Vegetation Science doi:10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01048.x.
16. Johnson, D., Leake, J.R., Ostle, N., Ineson, P., and Read, D.J. 2002. In situ 13 CO2 pulselabelling of upland grassland demonstrates a rapid pathway of carbon flux from arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelia to the soil. New Phytologist 153: 327-334.
17. Klironomos, J.N. 2003. Variation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology 84: 2292–2301.
18. Liu, R.J., Liu, P.Q., Xu, K., and Lu, Z.F. 1999. Ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline-alkaline soils of China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 10: 721-724.
19. Mehrvarz, S., Chaichi, M.R., and Alikhani, H.A. 2008. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and phosphorus chemical fertilizer on yield and yield component of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment 3 (6): 822-828.
20. Miller, R.M., and Jastrow, J.D. 2000. The application of VA mycorrhizae to ecosystem restoration and reclamation. In: Allen MF, ed. Mycorrhizal functioning: an integrative plant-fungal process. New York: Chapman and Hall p. 438–467.
21. Mozafarian, V. 2000. Glossary of Iranian Plant Names. 2nd Edited, Institute of Contemporary Iran. (In Persian)
22. Phillips, J.M., and Hayman, D.S. 1970. Improved procedure for clearing roots and staining parasites and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55: 158–161.
23. Porras-Soriano, A., Soriano-Martin, M.L., Porras-Piedra, A., and Azcon, R. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 166: 1350-1359.
24. Renata, G., Bruno, T., and Danielle, K. 2010. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and cattle manure in the establishment of Tocoyena selloana Schum. In: mined dune areas. European Journal of Soil Biology 46: 237- 242.
25. Rengasamy, P. 2006. World salinization with emphasis on Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 1017-1023.
26. Saghari, M., Barani, H., Mesdagi, M., and Sadroi, M. 2009. Inoculation effect of mycorrhiza and Phosphorus fertilize on growth and yield of two annual Medicago sp. Journal of Iranian Range Management Society 15: 291-301. (In Persian)
27. Sanchez-Coronado, M.E., Coates, R., Castro-Colina, L., de Buen, A.G., Paez-Valencia, J., Barradas, V.L., Huante, P., and Orozco-Segovia, A. 2007. Improving seed germination and seedling growth of Omphalea oleifera (Euphorbiaceae) for restoration projects in tropical rain forests. Forest Ecology and Management 243: 144-155.
28. Sharma, D., Kapoor, R., and Bhatnagar, A.K. 2009. Differential growth response of Curculigo orchioides to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities varying in number and fungal components. European Journal of Soil Biology 45: 328-333.
29. Smith, M.R., Charvat, I., and Jacobson, R.L. 1998. Arbuscular mycorrhizae promote establishment of prairie species in a tallgrass prairie restoration. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 1947-1954.
30. Smith, S.E., Facelli, E., Pope, S., and Smith, A.F. 2010. Plant performance in stressful environments: interpreting new and established knowledge of the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Plant and Soil 326: 3-20.
31. Swift, C.E. 2004. Mycorrhiza and soil phosphorus levels. Area Extension Agent: http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/Tra/Plants/mycorrhiza.
32. Thrall, P.H., Broadhurst, L.M., Hoque, M.S., and Bagnall, D.J. 2009. Diversity and salt tolerance of native Acacia rhizobia isolated from saline and non-saline soils. Austral Ecology 34: 950 -963.
33. Tufenkci, S., Sonmez F., and Sensoy, R. 2005. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation and phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizations on some plant growth parameters and nutrient content of chickpea. European Journal of Soil Biology 5(6): 738-743.
34. Van der Heijden, M.G.A., Bardgett, R.D., and van Straalen, N.M. 2008. The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 11: 296-310.
35. Wang, Z., Song, K., Zhang, B., Liu, D., Ren, C., Luo, L., Yang, T., Huang, N., Hu, L., Yang, H., and Liu, Z. 2009. Shrinkage and fragmentation of grasslands in the West Songnen Plain, China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129: 315-324.
36. Wilson G.W.T. 1999. Mycorrhizae influence plant community structure and diversity in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 80: 1187–1195.
37. Younginger, B., Barnouti, J., and Moon, D.C. 2009. Interactive effects of mycorrhizal fungi, salt stress, and competition on the herbivores of Baccharis halimifolia. Ecological Entomology 34: 580-587.
38. Zhang, Y.F., Wang, P., and Yang, Y.F. 2011. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve reestablishment of Leymus chinensis in bare saline-alkaline soil: Implication on vegetation restoration of extremely degraded land. Journal of Arid Environments 1-6.